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GENETICS

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by

Gertjan Goossens

on 24 March 2015

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Transcript of GENETICS

Genetics
DNA
All the genetic
info together is called
GENOTYPE
human cells
chromosome
Human cell
23 pairs of chromosomes
Genetic information = genes
eye color
skin color
Genotype
Total of genetic information on your chromosomes:
make new body cells
produce enzymes
curly or straight hair
eye color
male or female
intelligence
character
.............
Phenotype
Your observable traits, appearance
eye color
curly or straight hair
skin color
male or female
length
character
.............
genes
external factors, environment
the sun
sun glasses
food
phenotype
genotype
codes for
Where do all these traits come from?
Fertilization
egg cell
Zygote
23chromosomes
23chromosomes
46chromosomes
Genes & Inheritance
these genes can be different
these genes can be the same
Different versions of the same gene are called alleles
allele for brown eyes
allele for blue eyes
Brown or
Blue eyes??
Recessive or Dominant?
A dominant allele always shows, even if someone only has one copy of it.
OR
2 alleles for
brown eyes
1 allele for
brown eyes
&
1 allele for
blue eyes
Brown Eyes
nucleus
building
material
sperm cell
A recessive allele only shows if someone has two copies of it.
2 alleles for blue eyes
Allele Combinations
two different alleles

Heterozygous
two equal alleles
both dominant

two equal alleles
both recessive

Homozygous
dominant
Homozygous
recessive
Brown
eyes
Brown
eyes
Blue
eyes
Dominant allele = Capital letter
Recessive allele = smalll letter
Alleles
Aa
AA
aa
A
a
Genotype
Phenotype
brown
brown
blue
parents make sex cells
aa
AA
a
a
A
A
Aa
parents (P): Aa x Aa
sex cells:
A and a
A and a
A
a
A
a
AA
Aa
Aa
aa
F1=first generation
A man, homozygous recessive,
and a woman, heterozygous expect a baby.
What is chance he baby will have blue eyes?
: homozygous recessive = aa
: heterozygous = Aa
parents (P): aa x Aa
sex cells:
a and a
A and a
A
a
a
a
Aa
F1=first generation
AA / Aa = brown eyes
aa = blue eyes
50%
50%
Aa
aa
aa
Cystic fibrosis
a genetic disease
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused
by a recessive allele f
Someone is called a carrier because, even though he or she caries the faulty allele for CF, he or she does not have CF.
If two carriers have a child together, what is the chance for this baby of inheriting the disorder?
2 cariers (P): Cc x Cc
sex cells:
C and c
C and c
C
c
C
c
CC
F1=first generation
CC = "normal"
cc = cystic fibrosis
25%
25%
Cc
Cc
cc
Cc = carriers
50%
Full transcript