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Russian Institutions

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by

Kelly Schneider

on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of Russian Institutions

Russian Institutions
Branches
Interaction between branches
Selection of Political Elites
The president, the Duma, and the Federation Council each appoint 5 members to a council
The president and members of the Duma are directly elected
The commissioners oversee the election process
Being part of the United Russia Party
http://council.gov.ru/en/
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/ch5.html
http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/ch5.html
Influence of Military
Called Russian Armed Forces
There is a draft system instituted
Citizens are able to resist the draft by way of conscious objection
"real men endure hardships" referring to applying to army
Military is ordered around mostly by Putin
Military demonstrations near the Ukraine border is now seen as a threat or show of power
Troops dissatisfied with the 2006 reform of army
http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/russias-military-back-9181
http://eng.mil.ru/en/mission/tasks.htm
Putin's Political Background
High member of the KGB before break-up of the Soviet Union
Main political figure since 2000
President for two consecutive terms, then elected prime minister
After being prime minister, re-elected in 2012 to serve as president again
Kelly Schneider, Libby Milo, Keziah Knopp
Executive Branch
Prime Minister
Nominates ministers and officials to president for approval
Proposes changes to institutions
In charge of punishment and rewarding of government officials
Head of Security Council
Can represent Russia in foreign and domestic situations
Dmitry Medvedev
President
#1 guy in charge
Handles foreign and domestic policy
Signs international treaties, present @ international affairs
Appoints ambassadors
Submits laws to Duma
Issues decrees and directives
Commander in chief of military
Vladimir Putin
Legislative Branch
Political Party System
Multi-party system
Illusion of democracy
Democracy is ideal with two or three parties
Dresden system
-
one major party controls several satellite parties that have little influence
Laws limit opportunities for smaller parties and prevent the creation of new parties
President supports certain parties but not others
Mass media propaganda selections
Restrictions on political power at regional levels
ex. - governors chosen by president
Distribution of Governmental Powers
"Russian Federation" = federal
Federal Assembly with two houses
State Duma
Lower house
450 members
More powerful house
All bills are first proposed in this house
May override decision of the Federation Council with a 2/3 vote
Confirms prime minister appointments
Russia = "democracy"
Federation Council
166 members
Upper house
Significantly less powerful
Deals with domestic issues
Must at least review all bills passed regarding budget, taxes, war and treaties
Has final say in decision to remove president
Members of the Duma
Creation of Party System
Russian Federation established when Soviet Union ended in 1991
New Constitution in 1993
Major political fragmentation
United Russia - main political party in 2004; stabilized multiparty system
Judicial Branch
Constitutional Court
Supreme Court
Supreme Court of Arbitration
District courts see primary cases
Regional courts are the appellate courts
Controlled by the All- Russian Congress of Judges
Prosecutor General is most powerful person within the judiciary
450 members all elected by the people; a variety of representation
50% is part of the United Russia Party
19% is part of the Communist Party
14% is part of the Just Russia party
Members of the Russian Council

166 counselors chosen by the territorial politicians of the area
Often former governors of the territories
Quite a few of the members were once associated with the former Soviet Union but are now members of the Communist Party or run as Independents
Decisions based on Constitution (rule of law)
http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/russia/GOVERNMENT.html
Executive
Legislative
Judicial
Main Political Party Exemplifications
Established and controlled by the executive branch
Blurred ideology
Use of state resources for campaigning
http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/pdfs/RAD-19-12-14.pdf
Civil Service in Russia
Civil Service is being reformed in Russia currently
No tests to pass or forms to fill out currently to be involved in civil service
Federal Customs Service organization staffs and provides security for events such as the Sochi Olympics
http://eng.customs.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1708&Itemid=1927
Impact
"Party of power" increasing; number of parties decreasing
proportional representation
increase minimal limits of party size
indirect favoritism by president
Discouragement of Communism
Putin kept in power
http://www.ut.ee/ABVKeskus/?leht=prognoosid&aasta=2006&keel=en&dok=partysys
http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Russianpoliticalsystem.html
Strong central government
Unitary similarities
Powerful "president"
http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Russianpoliticalsystem.html
The State Duma
Prior 2007:
Half of seats chosen by proportional representation
Half chosen by single-member districts
5% of votes to qualify for seats
2007:
Putin's Decree
After Putin's Decree:
All seats chosen by proportional representation
7% of votes to qualify for seats
Regional Government
Select authority
Impose regional taxes
Administrative divisions have equal power in Federal Assembly under 1993 Constitution
Federal Districts
7 drawn in 2000
Decreased power of administrative divisions
Individual president representatives
implement federal law
communicate between president and regional governors
enforce presidential authority
2010 - 8th federal district
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513251/Russia/257912/Regional-and-local-government
Local government
impose taxes
license businesses
Medvedev decreased the bureaucracy in 2011
In 2012, he wanted more staff
Controversy over civil servants' salaries and exams
The President submits laws to the legislature, but is distanced from the branch by the constitution
President and legislative work together to create laws
Legislative branch can remove president from office/ give a vote of no confidence which the president can ignore
President settles disputes between governmental bodies
In general, the two branches work in unison with one another
http://rt.com/politics/medvedev-civil-servants-recruitment-559/
http://archive.kremlin.ru/eng/articles/president03.shtml
The judiciary of the Russian Federation (in theory) is separate from the other the other branches
Judicial committee sometimes take part in the law-preparing process, they give the initiative for the president to make certain executive orders
According to the Constitution, the judicial branch should have no possibility to take part in the law making process
Typically, they abide by this but there are some times where the judiciary has overstepped its boundaries
According to the Russian Constitution, the president is not supposed to interact with the other branches
His authorities can provide "judicial manpower" especially at the state level
President appoints judges
Judiciary can declare that executive actions unconstituional
http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj27(elelc)13/99.pdf

President's cabinet consists of many ministers that are similar to the US secrataries
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