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This war's not over.

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Sophie Thoma

on 4 May 2010

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Transcript of This war's not over.

This War's not over... War's end: Profiles from bosnia 1995-1996
By Joe sacco
Published in 2005
This is a compilation of two of Sacco's short stories, Soba and Chirstmas with Karadzic with the central focus being the Bosnian-Herzegovina war.
These two stories focus on two facets of the war, the side of the journalist and shows the facts of the war. The other is the perspective of the veteran and how post traumatic stress disorder can effect a generation.
It is an example of Sacco's work in 'comic journalism'.

Soba! the story of a young man destroyed by a war he was forced to participate in. Numbed to the world by the horrors he’s been witness to, he searches for salvation in art, music, alcohol and sex. He struggles with flashbacks and nightmares about the battlefront, causing him insomnia and depression. Around him are the disenfranchised and traumatized fellow members of his generation, some who, like Soba are seeking escape through party after party and some whose experience with war has given them a taste for blood and caused them to seek violence in their civilian life. It is a personal and heart wrenching story of a man watching his country fall apart before him and trying to find his own life amongst the wreckage. Christmas with Karadzic "Christmas with Karadzic," we see more of a personal perspective from the perspective of Joe Sacco. It is the story of a motley crew of reporters chasing down a chance to interview Radovan Karadzic, a Bosnian-Serb politician who is currently on trial for war crimes against Bosnian Muslims and Croats. In the first scene is a is a few days before Christmas, we see the three reporters driving erratically, bursting through the military check points and franticly moving forward. They are taking chances, and as we find out it’s a risky situation since foreign reporters haven’t been allowed into the area for quite some time. No matter the distance physically from the area, the narrator is still affected emotionally by this place and surprises himself when he finally meets Karadzic and his long burning anger is no longer there. It is an unflinching and funny insight into the world of reporters on the front line. Bosinain war Timeline “Bosnian Civil War (1992–5) The longest and most violent European war in the second half of the twentieth century. It was caused by opposition of the orthodox Serbian minority in Bosnia-Hercegovina to the country's secession from Yugoslavia, as demanded by its Muslim majority. Supported by substantial military assistance from Serbia, the Bosnian Serbs scored successive wins over a Muslim army severely weakened by an international arms embargo. In the areas which came under its control, the Bosnian Serbs carried out a brutal program of ‘ethnic cleansing’ or genocide, whereby Muslims and Croats were expelled (and, in many cases, murdered) in order to create ethnically homogeneous areas under Serb control, and to present the Bosnian Muslims and the international community with a fait accompli. As brutality and inhumanity escalated, rape became commonplace, while prisoners of war and innocent civilians were kept in ill-disguised concentration camps. In this way, the Bosnian Serbs controlled around 70 per cent of the country's area by the beginning of 1995.
Several factors began to change in the Bosnian Muslims' favor. They were strengthened by an alliance with the Bosnian Croat minority, which led to the creation of the Muslim-Croat Federation on 31 May 1994. More importantly, despite continuous European mediation through the UN and the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force, it was only the intervention of the USA in August 1995 against continued Serb aggression which led to Serbian agreement to negotiations. This led to the 1995 Dayton Agreement, which re-established a united country which would pursue a common foreign and defense policy, but which had two largely autonomous halves, the Muslim-Croat Federation based in Sarajevo and the Serb part of Bosnia-Hercegovina. Out of an original population of around 4.4 million (1991), virtually the entire population was uprooted, as around three million people became internal refugees migrating from areas under hostile control, and 1.3 million fled to other European states. As ethnic tensions within Bosnia-Hercegovina continued, more than one million refugees had still not returned to their homes by 2002.”
JAN PALMOWSKI. "Bosnian Civil War." A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Apr. 2010<http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that can develop after experience with any event which results in psychological trauma. This event may involve the natural disaster, violence, or assault which overwhelms the individual's ability to cope.
Symptoms of PTSD include re-experiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares. The individual may avoid stimuli associated with the trauma, and experience increased anxiety- such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger, and hypervigilance. Formal diagnostic criteria require that the symptoms last more than one month and cause significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
The History of PTSD PTSD was first included in third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder legitimizing it as a mental disorder.
Many consider this a re-naming of what had previously described as "shell shock," "war neurosis," "traumatic neurosis," "combat trauma “or” combat fatigue". These titles, however, implied that this sort of trauma was only applicable to veterans.
Other origins of the disorder come from research done by Sigmund Freud and Pierre Janet in the late 1800's.
Abram Kardiner's Traumatic Neuroses of War and War Stress and Neurotic Illness is considered the seminal work on PTSD, these books catalog his research of veterans of World War II.

Other Representations of PTSD in Popular Media •Most American film and literature that revolves around PTSD, focuses heavily on the Vietnam War.
oFilms such as: Apocalypse Now (1979), The Deer Hunter (1979), Heaven and Earth (1993), Birdie (1984), Taxi Driver (1976) and Born on the Fourth of July (1989)
Other Examples: Sophie’s Choice, The Fisher King, Ordinary People, Reign Over Me.
Myths and Facts about PTSD The representation of PTSD in Media have allowed some very untrue opinions about this disorder to become part of the public conciousness.

Myth: PTSD is only seen in people with “weak characters” who are unable to cope with difficult situations in the same way that most of us do.

Fact: PTSD is a human response to markedly abnormal situations, and it involves specific chemical changes in the brain that occur in response to a person experiencing a traumatic event. Many of the symptoms of PTSD seem to be a direct result of such brain changes.

Myth: All of us have been through frightening experiences and have at least one symptom of PTSD as a result of that experience.

Fact: Although memories of frightening experiences may be similar to symptoms of PTSD (e.g., vivid memories), most persons do not have the severity of symptoms or impairment associated with PTSD. The specific brain-based responses seen in PTSD differ from those seen in normal anxiety. Similarly, the experiences of normal anxiety and of PTSD are markedly different.

Myth: Stress reactions to trauma exist, but these should not be considered as a serious medical problem.

Fact: PTSD is a medical disorder that can sometimes cause serious disability. Persons with PTSD often also have co-occurring mood, anxiety, and substance-related disorders. In addition, these people may have significant difficulty at their job, in their personal relationships, or other social interactions. War's End as a representation of PTSD SOba show's many of the symptoms of PTSD such as
Hyper stimulation
Substance abuse
This book shows a very true and honest depiction of a serious condition, and rgis disorder is something that many people are face with today, especially in Bosnian refugees. Work's Cited Beall, Lisa S. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Bibliographic Essay." CHOICE (1997). Auburn University Libraries. Web. 8 Apr. 2010. <http://www.lib.auburn.edu/socsci/docs/ptsd.html>.
Myths and Facts about PTSD | Psych Central." Psych Central - Trusted Mental Health, Depression, Bipolar, ADHD and Psychology Information. Web. 03 May 2010. <http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/myths-and-facts-about-ptsd/>.
<JAN PALMOWSKI. "Bosnian Civil War." A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Apr. 2010<http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
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