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Transcript of LESSON PLAN
Where you may start.
The path you may take to get there.
Where you could finish. 1.It gives TS confidence and the chance to predict possible areas of improvement.
2. It ensures the teaching sequence is balanced and appropriate for class.
3. It allows TS to tailor (adjust up and down) their materials.
4. It is a sign of professionalism: See the 6Ps.
What are the principles of planning? 1. Setting goals and objectives What should go into a lesson plan? According to Jeremy Harmer (2007) when planning an English lesson TS must keep in mind the three ESA elements to guide the learning process:
Motivation Engage (Present)
Language Focus Study (Practice)
Topic / context Activate (Produce)
Ofelia García’s (1992b) analogy introduces the need for language planning and language preservation. “Her Language Garden Analogy focuses on the idea that if we traveled through the countries of the world and found field after field, garden after garden of the same, one colour-flower, without variety of shape, size or colour, how dull and boring the world would be” (in Mejía, A.M. de 2002, p.52).
language diversity in the garden of the world makes a richer, more interesting world with a depth of experience gained from a breadth of cultures.
The analogy suggests that: It also suggests that language diversity requires planning and care (in Mejía, A.M. de 2002). Why to plan a lesson? The 6 Ps Prior
Performance Specific: They must specify what they want to achieve.
Measurable: You should be able to measure whether your students are meeting the learning objectives or not.
Achievable: You must question if the learning targets set are attainable.
Realistic: You ought to check if the learning objectives are achievable with the resources you have available.
Time-based: You should limit the time when you want to achieve the learning objectives. Terminal Objectives versus Enabling Objectives Terminal objectives are final learning outcomes that can be measured and evaluated (Douglas Brown, 1994) Enabling objectives are provisional or interim steps that gradually build and lead to a terminal objective (Douglas Brown, 1994) 2. Variety Activities should be: Vivid … vibrant
Interactive & interesting
Especial &expansive (*)
Yielding (***) (*) friendly/open
(**) suitable for someone
(***) enjoyable/pleasant 3. Flexibility Despite careful planning, TS never actually know what is going to happen in a class until it happens!
Something unexpected may happen during the lesson. If teachers stick rigidly to their plans, the careful preparation may actually have a negative effect. 1. Write a brief description of the class along with time management.
2. State the general objective or the goal of the class.
3. State the specific objectives and make sure to differentiate between terminal and enabling objectives.
4. State the sort of previous knowledge required.
5. Announce the written materials and equipment needed to develop your lesson.
6. Identify the teaching sequence to follow according to SS’ learning needs and English command.
7. Describe the learning strategies and the procedure keeping in mind not only the structure of a lesson, but also the inclusion of a variety of pre-while and post tasks for whatever linguistic aspect you wish to handle. How to manage the instructional procedure while maximizing the learning process? By conducting a review of the previous topic
By getting students interested in the class (E)
By setting clear and meaningful examples (S)
By asking questions to check understanding (A)
By leading /coaching student new content practice (A)
By giving tactful feedback during practice
By correcting through questioning, intonation patterns or re-teaching References BBC British Council Teaching English Methodology – Lesson Planning adapted from the book Action Plan for Teachers, 2000.
Harmer, Jeremy. How to describe learning and teaching, and how to be a good teacher. In: How to Teach English, Addison Wesley Longman, 2007.
Brown H. Douglas (2001) Teaching by Principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy, Second Edition. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Brown, H . Douglas. How to plan a lesson. In: Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, pp 395-410. San Francisco State University . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents, 1994.
On line documents:
Language Teaching Assessment (LTA) Centre for Learning and Professional Development at the University of Adelaide- Australia
TLL Services: Teaching and Learning Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology-MIT