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Impact of the Columbian Exchange

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Adele Raquepaw

on 11 February 2015

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Transcript of Impact of the Columbian Exchange

Thesis:
I: Interaction between humans
and the environment
Although continuity was demonstrated in the constant struggle between European states to become world powers through international trade, the Columbian exchange and the transfer of diseases, goods, and ideas, changed how people interacted with their environments in the new and old worlds in the 15th to 18th centuries.
1450 A.D.
1500 A.D.
1550 A.D.
1600 A.D.
1650 A.D.
1700 A.D.
1750 A.D.
c. 1492 A.D.
c. 1520 A.D.
Theme:
Impact of the
Columbian exchange

c. 1500 A.D.
c. 1520 A.D.
c. 1525 A.D.
c. 1539 A.D.
c. 1545 A.D.
c. 1616 A.D.
c. 1619 A.D.
c. 1682 A.D.
c. 1700 A.D.
1492
1500
1520
1525
1539
1545
1616
1619
1682
1700
Adele Raquepaw
Block 3
By
Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, was
sent by Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain) in 1492 to find a western route to India. This event shows
change
because although European states at this time were constantly concentrating on expansion and gaining more territory, a whole new world was found. When Columbus landed, he believed he had been successful in reaching his planned destination and not a completely different place altogether. The discovery of the new world falls under the "I" theme in SPICE because Columbus had to overcome the natural barriers to "India"/America and had to use this knowledge of a completely new environment to Spain's advantage. Also, this trip set the stage for the "Columbian exchange" of goods, animals, crops, ideas, and technology between worlds which caused a change in how people interacted with their environment.
Trade at this time was not only limited to Europe and the new world. It included Asia as well. Important crops like potatoes, sweet potatoes, and corn made their way from America into China around 1500 and became extremely beneficial to the people there. Chinese farmers could interact with their environment (the "I" theme) in new ways. Jobs were created because of these crops and agriculture was not as limited as it had been. This event shows
change
because trade began to include not only goods, but new crops, and Asia became connected to the new world.
Native Mexican people ruled the Aztec empire in Mesoamerica. In 1520, however, these people suffered a disease that is now known as smallpox. The year before, in 1519, a Spanish conquistador named Hernán Cortés led an expedition through parts of Mexico and conquered many indigenous peoples. One of his soldiers carried smallpox, a disease that was already known in Europe. The people of the new world had had no contact with diseases like smallpox before and were not immune. The people suffered a drastic
change
. Ultimately, half the Aztec population died and those who remained surrendered to the Spanish. This event falls under the "I" SPICE theme because of the disease. The Europeans, having already been exposed to smallpox due to their environment, survived while the Aztecs were not so lucky.
{ Disease, migration, patterns of settlement, population, natural resources, natural barriers, and technology }
A few years after the Aztec empire fell, another native people surrendered to the Spanish. Francisco Pizarro, another conquistador sent on an expedition for Spain, only had a small army. Diseases like smallpox (and later, the measles) were unexpected factors in their success though. They killed more than 200,000 Inca people, including rulers, potential royal heirs, and military leaders. This event showed
continuity
because the Inca natives could not do anything to prevent European diseases even though the Aztecs had already suffered. After the initial introduction of the disease, this problem would continue for a long time. People in the Americas interacted with their environment (the "I" theme) differently than before because they were not immune to European diseases and had no way to stop the rapid population decrease.
...and how it affected
the environment
In 1539, another Spanish conquistador came to the Americas on an expedition. Hernando de Soto explored what is now the southeastern states and was the first European documented to cross the Mississippi River. He and his men had hoped to discover gold and silver like in Central America. Also, they wanted to find a passage by land through Texas and through Mexico. Both of these things were not accomplished, however, and they came back to Spain with not much more than American Indian slaves. This event shows
continuity
because Europe is still expanding and hoping to make a profit off the new land. De Soto's expedition falls under the "I" theme in SPICE because Spain was trying to find and use natural resources. Also, it was a great feat to cross such a big landmark/natural barrier that is the Mississippi River.
One American Indian nation called the Comanche
tribe was the first Indian tribe to fully integrate the horse into their culture in the new world. Horses came from Europe to the Americas because of the Columbian exchange a couple of centuries earlier, but had not been incorporated into a lifestyle or used for riding much. Their growth in equestrian skill made them a dominant and distinguished tribe in the great plains of America at this time. This event shows
change
because of the exchange of animals to the new world from the old world. No tribe had done what the Comanche had accomplished with horses. This incorporation falls under the "I" theme in SPICE because the American Indians learned how to use
their environment to their advantage. Their
interaction with horses majorly benefited their
tribe andtheir way of life.
The Spanish, because of their expeditions and the Treaty of Tordesillas, controlled parts in South America. In 1545, they discovered a huge silver mine in Potosí, Bolivia. Being made into coins, the silver took over trade in Europe. Prices around the world rose and inflation became a major problem. The Spanish used manual labor to mine; that was the extent of their technology at the time. This brought many other workers as well as business people trying to sell appealing things for the workers. The introduction of silver brought about
change
in Europe and Asia. Many states and civilizations (like Spain and China) were severely affected in a negative way politically. Silver coins also satisfies another need: the "I" theme in SPICE. Because of the settlement/migration of workers and sellers and the desire for the use of natural resources, the discovery of silver affected how people interacted with the environment at this time.
Before the pilgrims that are known for the
first Thanksgiving settled in 1620 in Plymouth, a disease spread through that area. Many Amerindian peoples and tribes were wiped out because of this recent epidemic. Smallpox especially was brutal. It affected the Algonquin, the Cherokee, the Catawba, the Omahas, the Mandans, and many more Native American tribes. Diseases from the old world impacted the new world much more than the other way around. New world diseases had little to no affect on Europe or Asia at this time. Since the Inca people and Aztecs already suffered diseases like these, this event shows
continuity
. Indian tribes from the great plains were severely impacted and suffered because of the change in their environment (the "I" theme).
1619 marks the beginning of the slave trade in America. A Dutch ship that held African slaves was docked at one of the colonies, which is where the slave trade in North America began. The Dutch sailors were starving and needed foo, so they ended up trading about twenty Africans who became the first American slaves. By the end of the 17th century, the colonists were much more dependent on indentured servants and slave labor. They interacted with their environment (theme "I") less and relied on slaves to do the work. The beginning of the slave trade was a large
change
for America. Despite the revolts and wars that it would eventually lead to, slavery made the early colonists interact with their environment differently.
Expeditions were
continuing
to take place in the Americas. A French explorer, Sieur de La Salle, like de Soto, traveled along the Mississippi River. But instead of trying to find gold and silver, La Salle and his men discovered a land passage from their French colonies in Canada to Louisiana. The French were then able to control much of this area at this time because of their exploration and establishments in the south. During their expedition, La Salle and his men discovered American bison (buffalo) and used them to restock their supplies because they were running low. They even named a river the "Rivière aux Boeufs" because of the nearby buffalo herds. La Salle's expedition falls unde the "I" theme because of the adaption of the French explorers to their environment.
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