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Grammar - Parts of Speech

Notes for the parts of speech
by

Andy Good

on 20 August 2013

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Transcript of Grammar - Parts of Speech

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your note guide

Parts of Speech
A word used in place of a noun or more than one noun.
Pronouns
Person
Place
Thing
Idea
Nouns
Concrete - perceived by senses
Abstract - Ideas, feelings, qualties
Compound - Two or more words used together as a single noun
Debbie
didn't like her
sister
.
The
family
went to the
campground
.
Mike
and
Bill
found a giant
watermelon
.
Truth
is found in
honesty
and
kindness
.
When they went on vacation, the family had time to watch the
clouds
.
When they went on vacation, the family had time to enjoy the
beauty
of nature.
My cousin John is a
political scientist
.
The following is a job description for an opening
in the Berks County Parks Department. Identify
ALL
nouns in the description.
SKATE PARK ATTENDANT

Employees have the responsibility of overseeing the operation of the Stonecliffe Recreation Area. Duties include, but are not limited to: trash removal, safety inspections, conflict resolution, restroom cleaning, security, and grounds keeping activities.

Work hours for this position are from 4:00 p.m. until close (sunset) and weekends and holidays. A total of 990 hours per year has been budgeted for this position. Starting pay is $7.25/hr.

Gloria stepped back from the picture and looked at
it
carefully.
Our teacher and Mr. Barnes said
they
would go to the meeting.
Antecedents
A pronoun refers to another noun. The noun to which the pronoun refers is called the
ANTECEDENT
.
Tom closed his book and put
it
down.
The coach showed the players how
they
should throw the ball.
Have the birds flown south yet?
They
should start migrating soon.
Personal Pronouns
Singular
Plural
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
I, my, mine, me
we, our, ours, us
you, your, yours
you, your, yours
he, his, him, she, her, hers, it, its
they, their, theirs, them
Commonly Used Pronouns
Reflexive - Refers to the subject of a verb
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Relative - Introduces adjective and noun clauses
who, whom, whose, which, that
Interrogative - Begins a question
Who...? Whom...? Whose...? What...? Which...?
Demonstrative - Identifies specific person or thing
this, that, these, those
Indefinite - refers to things in general, commonly used without antecedents
all another any anybody anyone anything both each either everybody everyone everything few many more most much neither nobody none no one one other several some somebody someone
Identify all of the
PRONOUNS
and their
ANTECEDENTS
in the following paragraph. Some
ANTECEDENTS
may be located in a different sentence than their
PRONOUNS
.
(1) Since many people told the same story, the historian believed it. (2) Supposedly, a young boy and girl with bright green skin had been found wandering in the fields. (3) They spoke a foreign language and wore clothing made of an unknown material. (4) At first, the two children would eat only green beans, but after they learned to eat bread, their skin gradually lost its greenness. (5) After learning English, the girl said she and her brother had come from a land called Saint Martin. (6) This story sounds like science fiction, doesn't it? (7) Perhaps the villagers invented it to amuse their friends and fool historians.
An
ADJECTIVE
modifies a noun or a pronoun.
Adjectives
Answers which one, what kind, or how many in reference to a noun or pronoun.
What Kind?
Which One?
How Many?
gray
sky
old
shoes
clever
dog
low
price
that
girl
next
day
either
way
last
chance
five
fingers
many
rivers
fewer
hours
some
problems
Pronoun or Adjective?
Some words act as both pronouns and adjectives.
If the word MODIFIES another, then it is an adjective. If it REPLACES another, then it's a pronoun.
Used as Adjective
Used as Pronoun
I like
that
shirt.
Either
car will do.
Sheila bought
some
books.
I like
that
.
Either
will do.
Sheila bought
some
.
Helpful Hint!!!!!
1. Find the noun or pronoun.
2. Ask what kind, which one, or how many before the noun/pronoun.
3. The answer will be your adjective! It describes (modifies) the noun/pronoun!
Mr. Farrell tells all students that good workers will be given special privileges.
Beverly was worried. She felt nervous about the play.
This activity will present you with a job description for the local Subway restaurant. Modify five (5) of the tasks and responsibilities by adding or replacing a minimum of three (3) descriptive
ADJECTIVES
to each. Be ready to identify which word is being modified by your changes.
Position Summary

The Sandwich Artist® greets and serves guests, prepares food, maintains food safety and sanitation standards, and handles or processes light paperwork. Exceptional customer service is a major component of this position.

Tasks and Responsibilities*:

1.Exhibits a cheerful and helpful manner while greeting guests and preparing their orders.
2.Demonstrates a complete understanding of menu items and explains them to guests accurately.
3.Uses Point of Sale system/cash register to record the order and compute the amount of the bill. Collects payment from guests and makes change.
4.Performs Cash-In Procedure- accounting for all forms of money, bread, etc., during the shift.
5.Prepares food neatly, according to formula, and in a timely manner.
6.Checks products in sandwich unit area and restocks items to ensure a sufficient supply throughout the shift.
7.Understands and adheres to proper food handling, safety and sanitation standards during food preparation, service and clean up.
8.Cleans and maintains all areas of the restaurant to promote a clean image. Understands and adheres to the 3-step method for cleaning.
9.Understands and adheres to all quality standards, formulas and procedures as outlined in the SUBWAY® Operations Manual.
10.Maintains a professional appearance and grooming standards as outlined in the SUBWAY® Operations Manual.
11.Performs light paperwork duties as assigned.
12.Completes University of SUBWAY®courses as directed

The Verb
Expresses action or state of being.
Action Verb
Expresses an observable action.
The boys
ran
in the race.
The waiter
brings
the food from the kitchen.
Linking Verb
Expresses a state of being, a state of existence.
Serves as a link between two words.
Forms of "to be" - am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
Not always easily observable.
The answer
is
three.
The casserole
tasted
strange.
The wet dog
smelled
horrible.
The motor
sounded
good.
Verb Phrase
A main verb and a helping verb(s).
All forms of "to be," as well as:
Helping Verbs
has have had shall may will can
should would could might must do did
does
...is leaving.
...had seemed.
...could jump.
...might have remained.
...will do.
Verb Phrases
Next, you will see the list of rules for the Fleetwood Pool. Identify ten (10)
VERB PHRASES
from the list.
FLEETWOOD POOL RULES
1 - Obey all staff. Disobedience to the staff will result in disciplinary action, up to & including suspension from the pool.
2 - No smoking or use of tobacco products within the pool area; only allowed in designated smoking area outside the pool.
It is unlawful for any minor under 18 to use or possess tobacco in any form within the Borough of Fleetwood, on
any Borough owned property, on any public street, highway, traffic way, alley or sidewalk.
3 - No foul language is allowed.
4 - No running on deck.
5 - Chicken fights, dunking, or jumping in on top of someone else is prohibited.
8 - No socializing with lifeguards while they are on duty.
10 - Disposable diapers are not allowed in the pool.
11 - No diving in the shallow area. Diving is only allowed in diving well or in lap swim area.
12 - Flotation devices are allowed in the pool only at the discretion of the manager. Under no circumstances will they be
allowed in the diving well.
13 - Sliding down the sliding board will only be done on your back in a feet first position.
14 - Balls & sports activities allowed in the pool area only at the discretion of the manager.
16 - Proper swim attire; which are articles of clothing that may be found in stores under “swimwear” is required. NO
JEANS, SWEATS, BASKETBALL SHORTS, OR BOXER SHORTS PERMITTED.
17 - No one is permitted to do a flip off of the pool deck or diving boards.
18 – Must be 4’ tall or have passed the swim test to go down the sliding board.
19- Disruptive behavior will not be tolerated.
20 – Anybody under the age of 14 must take the swim test to go into the diving well.
21 – No coolers or rolling coolers will be permitted inside the fenced-in pool area. Only small lunch bags will be allowed.
FAILURE TO OBEY THESE RULES WILL RESULT IN DISCIPLINARY ACTION. NO REFUNDS WILL BE
GIVEN.

The Adverb
Modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb.
Similar to an adjective, but doesn't deal with nouns.
Adverbs Modify Verbs
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
They Tell
WHERE
We lived
there
.
Please step
up
.
I have the ticket
here
.
They tell
WHEN
May we go
tomorrow
?
Water the plant
weekly
.
We'll see you
later
.
They tell
HOW
She
quickly
agreed.
The rain fell
softly
.
Drive
carefully
.
They tell
TO WHAT EXTENT
I am
completely
happy.
He
hardly
moved.
Did she hesitate
slightly
?
Complete the sentences by supplying appropriate
ADVERBS
.
1. The soldiers must travel (
how
).

2. They whispered (
how
) when she entered the room.

3. Your taxi should be (
where
) soon.

4. I could (
to what extent
) taste the tangy pizza.

5. Did you study (
to what extent
)?
Adverbs Modify Adjectives
Beth did an
exceptionally
fine job.
They aren't always necessary, but add detail and precision.
Slightly
cooler temperatures are forecast for this Sunday.
These adverbs frequently modify adjectives:
completely dangerously definitely

dreadfully entirely especially extremely

largely mainly mostly quite rather surprisingly

terribly unusually
Revise the following phrases by adding an
ADVERB
to modify the highlighted adjective.
1. a ____
sharp
turn
2. ____
playful
kittens
3. an ____
easy
question
4. The old mansion was ____
silent
.
5. Robert became ____
sick
and had to leave early.
Adverbs Modify other Adverbs
Many may call this redundant, but adding adverbs is for precision and clarity.
Calvin was
almost
never there.
We'll meet
shortly
afterward.
She slept
too
late.
Helpful rule of thumb!
-ly ending USUALLY means adverb.
Identify all the
ADVERBS
that modify other
ADVERBS
in these sentences:
1. The cat leapt to the windowsill quite agilely.

2. The books were stacked rather haphazardly.

3. Corrie knew she'd have to get up incredibly early to watch the eclipse.

4. The famous diamond was more heavily guarded than any other exhibit.

5. She registered too late to be eligible.
The Preposition
A preposition shows relationships between words.
aboard about above across after against along among around as at before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but(except) by concerning down during except for from in inside into like near of off on out over past since through throughout until to toward under underneath up upon with without
That's a pretty long list!

Remember this test sentence, then just fill in the blank to use a preposition correctly!
The man ran _______ the hill.
Conjunction
What's its function?
"Hooking up words and phrases and clauses."
Coordinating Conjuctions
Connect items of the same kind (nouns, phrases, ideas, etc...)
and but for
yet or nor so
Correlative Conjunctions
Connect items of the same kind, but are used IN PAIRS.
both....and
either....or whether....or
not only....but also neither....nor
Streets
and
sidewalks (two nouns)
on land
or
at sea

(two prep. phrases)
Judy wrote down the number,
but
she lost it. (two complete ideas)
Both
Jim Thorpe
and
Roberto Clemente were outstanding athletes. (two proper nouns)
We want to go
not only
to Ontario
but also
Quebec. (two prep.
phrases)
Either
we will buy it now,
or
we will wait for the next sale. (two independent clauses)
Identify each of the
CONJUNCTIONS
in the following paragraph.
(1)
When we bought our new house, my mother wanted to hire movers, but my father said we could do the move more efficiently.
(2)
He said that doing the job ourselves would be not only much faster but also far less expensive than having movers do it.
(3)
Neither my mom nor I was enthusiastic, but Dad convinced us. Luckily, Uncle Waldo and my cousin Fred volunteered to help.
(4)
On the day of the move, Dad rented a truck, but it wasn't large enough, and we had to make several trips.
(5)
At the new house, we could get the sofa through neither the back door nor the front door, and Uncle Waldo strained his back trying to loosen the sofa from the door frame.
(6)
Whether we saved money or not after paying both Uncle Waldo's and Dad's doctor bills and having the doorway widened is something we still don't discuss in our family.
Prepositional Phrase
All prepositions refer to another word.
The word to which the preposition refers is called the
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION
.
A
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
begins at the preposition and ends at the object of the preoposition.
The Saint Bernard slept
near
my bed.
Everything
about
the beach was wonderful.
Welcome
aboard
our boat.
Fresh lobster is a treat
for
many diners.
We rode
on
the subway.
Oh! The Interjection!
An interjection expresses emotion.
It is not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence.
It is separated by a
COMMA
or
EXCLAMATION POINT
.
Ah,
that's refreshing.
Hey!
Be careful on the ice!
Well,
I guess that's that.
There's a skunk somewhere out here.
Gross!
One Last Point = CONTEXT
CONTEXT refers to how a word is used.
The same word can be used as many parts of speech, so you have to be aware of how the word is used IN CONTEXT, that is, in relation to the rest of the sentence. This requires you to PAY ATTENTION to language, not just memorize rules.
The fine feathers of young birds are called
down
. (noun)

She wore a
down
vest. (adjective)

Do you think the tackle will
down
the runner before reaching the end-zone? (verb)

Her poster fell
down
. (adverb)

My cousin lives
down
the street. (preposition)
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