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Nouns

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Samina Dazdarevic

on 10 October 2016

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Transcript of Nouns

NOUNS

What are types of nouns?
My cousin

Bethany

lives in

Delaware
.

Mr. Strong
is the principal at
West Hollow Middle School.

In 2013,
Halloween
falls on a
Thursday
.
Concrete Nouns
A concrete noun names something
you can experience with at least one of your senses
(sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell).
Most nouns are concrete nouns.
A proper noun refers to specific things that are unique or have names.
Proper nouns begin with capital letters.
Proper Nouns
Abstract Nouns
Abstract nouns describe something
you
cannot
see, hear, touch, taste, or smell.
Examples of abstract nouns...
Our
friendship
goes back many
years
.
It was a
pleasure
to meet your family.
Her
courage
was admirable for such a young person.
A noun names

a person (Davud),
place (Mekka),
thing (book),
animal (camel),
a quality (courage),
an action (laughter/laughing)

in order to identify them.
What are NOUNS?
How to identify nouns?
Noun endings
Noun/verb contrasts

Some words can be either
nouns or verbs
the difference from the way they are

stressed
and


pronounced


Nouns&verbs distinguished by stress

export
import object
the stress is on the first syllable -
a
noun
,
the stress is on the second
syllable - a
verb
1 We have made good 'progress verb
We are now ready to pro'gress to Book

2 but can be different noun
My son s 'conduct at school hasn t been very good verb Mahler used to con'duct the Vienna Philharmonic

Nouns distinguished by pronunciation
Nouns and verbs with the same spelling and pronunciation
answer
change
dream
hope
Some words function:

only as
nouns
(desk),
others function as
nouns
or
verbs
(work),
others function as
nouns
or
adjectives
(cold)

CLASSES OF COMMON NOUNS


INDIVIDUAL
- individual of a class (road, man, girl, etc.)

COLLECTIVE
- group of things, animals, or persons considered as a unit (crowd, mob, committee, council, congress, meeting, family)
- Name for a group or collection of objects

MATERIAL
- the names apply to every particle of similar substance,instead of to each individual or separate object.
- Names for things thought of in mass
(1) The metals: iron, gold, platinum, etc.
(2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea, sugar, rice, wheat,
(3) Geological bodies: mud, sand, granite, rock, stone,
(4) Natural phenomena: rain, dew, cloud, frost, mist, etc.
(5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth), potash, soap, rubber, paint, celluloid, etc.
Modification of nouns
- A name possessed by any one of a class of persons, animals, or things
- A Latin word which means general, possessed by all
- Name for any individual of a class
ATTRIBUTE NOUNS - expressing attributes or qualities

- derived from adjectives and from common nouns
(1)
prudence
from
prudent
,
height
from
high
,
redness
from
red
,
stupidity
from stupid,
(2)
peerage
from
peer
,
childhood
from
child
,
mastery
from
master
,
kingship
from
king


VERBAL NOUNS - expressing state, condition, or action

1. of the same form as the simple verb. For example: the long
run
,the slow
move
2. derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix:
motion
from
move
,
speech
from
speak
,
theft
from
thief
)
3. derived from verbs by adding ING to the simple verb (
talk

talking
,
move

moving
)
4. underived abstract nouns:
beauty, joy, hope, ease, energy; day, night, summer, winter; shadow, lightning, thunder
, etc.
Common nouns refer to common, everyday things.

Examples of common nouns...

My
neighbor
left
seeds
for the
chipmunk
.


My
friend
rides the
bus
to
school
.


The green
block
is on the
bottom
of the
stack
.
Common nouns
Personal names
(with or without titles):
Andrew Smith, President Kennedy
Forms of address:
Mum, Dad, Auntie, Uncle Fred
Geographical names
Asia, Berkshire, India, Wisconsin
Place names
Madison Avenue Regent Street
Months, days of the week festivals and seasons

April, Monday, Easter, Christmas, spring or Spring
Person
The first person
is that which denotes the speaker or writer;
'I Paul have written it."

The second person
is that which denotes the hearer, or the person addressed;
"Robert, who did it?"

The third person
is that which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of;
"James loves his it."
Gender
distinguishing sex by words, or additions to words
There are three ways to distinguish the genders:
1.
By prefixing
a gender word to another word
she-goat, cock sparrow;hen sparrow, he-bear
2.
By adding a suffix
, generally to a masculine word
baron-baroness, count-countess, lion-lioness
3.
By using a different word
for each gender
horse-mare, nephew- niece
Number
the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one
Case
an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence
distinguish the speaker, the hearer, and the person or thing merely spoken of
Masculine
it denotes persons or animals of the male kind

man, father, king
Feminine
is that which denotes persons or animals of the female kind

woman, mother, queen
Neuter
it denotes things that are neither male nor female

pen, ink, paper
Common
it denotes things that can be male and female

friend, doctor, student
Singular
Plural
There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:

(1) By adding -en.(brethren, children)
(2) By changing the root vowel.(man-men,foot-feet)
(3) By adding -s (or -es).
Neuter /
Zero
pencil
house
boy
man
Nominative
is used:
(1) As the
subject
of a verb:
" Water seeks its level."
(2) As a
predicate
noun:
"A bent twig makes a crooked tree."
(3) In
apposition
with some other nominative word, adding to the meaning of that word:
"The reaper Death with his sickle keen."
(4) In
direct address
:
"Lord Angus, you lied!"
(5) With a
participle
in an absolute or independent phrase:
"The work done, they returned to their homes."
(6) With an
infinitive
in exclamations:
"David to die!"

Objective
used as:
(1) As the direct object of a verb:
"Woodman, spare that tree!"

(2) As the indirect object of a verb:
"Give the devil his due."

Possessive /
Genitive
always modifies another word, expressed or understood
singular: lady's,
child's
plural: ladies';
children's
Countable /
Uncountable
Countable nouns
a denial
a proposal
a scheme
a statement
Uncountable nouns
anger,
equality,
honesty,
love
Countable/Uncountable
Partitatives
COLLECTIVE NOUNS
Agreement between
singular/plural noun and singular/plural verb
Formation of feminine
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