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Digestive Disorders

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Pamela Melgar

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of Digestive Disorders

Digestive Disorders
By: Pamela Melgar

Period: 2

AOI: Health & Social Education

What is the Digestive System?
The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients that are useful to the body.
Why is the Digestive System so important?
The Digestive System is important for a good health, because if the digestive system begins to fail, or in severe cases shuts down, the body cannot be nourished or rid itself of waste
A brief video on the Digestive System
What organs does the Digestive System consist of?
The Digestive System consists of the following organs (in order):
Mouth
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ilium)
large intestine (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum).
As well as the gallbladder, pancreas, and liver
Let's begin to discuss about disorders in the digestive system
Stress
Stresses of all kinds, physical, emotional and mental, are primary causes of poor digestion. All unconscious activity in the human body, including both our reactions to stress and digestion, are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. When humans experience stress, as a survival mechanism, the body diverts energy, blood, enzymes and oxygen from the digestive organs to other areas of the body. In addition to mental and emotional stresses like fear, anger and worry, physical stresses including infections, trauma from injuries, surgery and environmental toxins can have a major effect on our digestive efficiency.


Poor Diet

Processed food consumption
– In the refining process, sugar and flour (refined carbohydrates) are stripped of dozens of essential nutrients and fiber. A steady diet of refined carbohydrates forces the body to rob itself of the chromium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc and magnesium. Once these minerals are depleted, the body finds it harder to digest any carbohydrates. Those that are not-fully-digested ferment into simple sugars and alcohols, providing fuels for yeast and bacteria and leading to indigestion, gas and bloating.
Low fiber diets
– Fiber is a non nutritive food component necessary to move residue through the intestines. Lack of fiber results in a slow transit time of food through the digestive tract (constipation). A slow transit time means greater risk of the absorption of some of the toxins from not-yet-eliminated food waste into the bloodstream.
Not enough raw food
– Food enzymes help digest food and they are supplied (aside from supplementation) solely by raw foods. Cooking at high temp over 116 degrees destroys food enzymes.
J
unk foods
– These (often high fat, high refined carbohydrates and or high sugar) foods are high in calories but almost completely devoid of nutritional value.
Drugs
All drugs and chemicals are basically toxins to the digestive system. Many drugs directly affect the digestive organs and digestion itself. Over-the-counter, prescription drugs and recreational drugs that can affect digestion include: antacids, antihistamines, NSAIDS, birth control pills, laxatives, steroids, alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine and many others. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, acetaminophen and ibuprofen can directly irritate the lining of the stomach impairing digestion leading to infection.
Genetics
As with all functions and organs genetics plays an important role in digestive functioning and our ability to withstand stress and resist digestive problems and diseases. Problems experienced by family members can be clues to our own genetic strengths and weaknesses as we learn more about this subject and move in the direction of improved health.
Causes of Digestive Disorders
Antibiotics
Antibiotics can kill a high percentage of the naturally occurring beneficial bacteria that we need for digestion. They affect these necessary bacteria as well as the pathogenic bacteria they are designed to protect us against. Once the antibiotic treatment stops there is an opening (very few bacteria in the gut and open enteric sites) and pathogenic bacteria, opportunistic yeasts, fungi and parasites can move in to fill this void. Once they become dominant and multiply, they can damage the gut wall, create toxins and affect your immune system.
Eating Habits

When food is swallowed after only a few short chews, those food particles are harder for the body to digest and can result in gas, bloating and indigestion.
Fruits should be eaten alone. Since they are high in enzymes, they take only 20-30 minutes to travel through the system and for their nutrients to be absorbed. When eaten with other foods which need much longer transit time, fruit will ferment in the transit process causing gastric distress.
Combining proteins with heavy starches like pasta and potatoes stress the digestive system.
Environmental Toxins
Modern life is full of environmental toxins including chemicals, radiation, solvents, food additives, air/water pollution, mercury and other metals. When exposed to them, the body naturally reacts to detoxify, which uses large amount of energy that leaves little energy for proper digestive function.
Food Allergies
Food allergens irritate and inflame your intestinal lining, which compromises your health and digestion. First, allergens reduce your ability to absorb the nutrients in your food. Just because you ate it doesn’t mean you absorbed the nutrients in the food. This is a critical step in healing, because the only way to heal and strengthen your body is to nourish it. If your digestive system is compromised, you won’t provide your body with an adequate supply of nutrients.
What is Proctitis?
Proctitis is inflammation of the lining of the rectum, the lower end of the large intestine leading to the anus. The large intestine and anus are part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. The movement of muscles in the GI tract, along with the release of hormones and enzymes, allows for the digestion of food. With proctitis, inflammation of the rectal lining—called the rectal mucosa—is uncomfortable and sometimes painful. The condition may lead to bleeding or mucous discharge from the rectum, among other symptoms.
Possible Causes of Proctitis
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Non-STD infections.
Anorectal trauma.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
Radiation therapy
Antibiotics

Symptoms
bloody bowel movements
rectal bleeding
a feeling of rectal fullness
anal or rectal pain
crampy abdominal pain
rectal discharge of mucus or pus
diarrhea or frequent passage of loose or liquid stools

Treatment
If lab tests confirm that an STD or non-STD infection is present, medication is prescribed based on the type of infection found.
If antibiotic use triggered proctitis, the doctor may prescribe a different antibiotic designed to destroy the harmful bacteria that have developed in the intestines.
Ulcers
There are three types that plauge the digestive system
Aphthous Ulcers, also known as "canker sores"
Peptic Ulcers of the stomcach
Ulcerative Colitis, which is found inside the colon
An ulcer is a sore caused by disintigration of the skin
They can be caused by cold, heat, irritation or poor circulation
A main cause is trauma to the skin, but these can also factor in:
Acidic food
Stress
Lack of sleep
food allergies
Vitamin deficiencies
Immune system resactions
Symptoms
Possible symptoms include:
pain in upper abdomen (about an hour after meal)
sickness/ nausea
vomiting
burning aching pain
loss of appetite
unintentional weight loss
Bloating

Treatment
Medications are usually used to treat mild-to-moderate ulcers. If the cause is bacterial, antibiotics can cure the ulcer. For recurrent, severe cases that do not respond to medication, surgery may be necessary.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
(IBS) is a functional bowel disorder
Irritable Bowel Syndrome may be caused by stress/ depression or lack of fiber in a diet
Mainly a stressful life event
When you suffer from IBS, the normal muscle contractions in the intestines do not work properly
IBS is often classified into four subtypes based on a person’s usual stool consistency:
IBS with constipation (IBS-C)
IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D)
Mixed IBS (IBS-M)
Unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U)
Symptoms
Some symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome may include the some of the following:
Diarrhea
Constipation
abdominal cramps and pains
loss of appetite
vomiting
changes in bowel habits
abdominal bloating
passing mucus
Treatment
There is no cure for IBS, but it can be
treated by:
changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
medications
probiotics
therapies for mental health problems
To prevent IBS:
Reduce Stress
Include more fiber in your diet
Celiac Disease
Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food
When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging or destroying villi
Symptoms

Symptoms of Celiac Disease may include some of the following:
abdominal bloating and pain
chronic diarrhea
vomiting
constipation
pale, foul-smelling, or fatty stool
weight loss
and many more
(Some people have hardly or no symptoms at all)
Treatment
The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Doctors may ask a newly diagnosed person to work with a dietitian on a gluten-free diet plan
To stay well, people with celiac disease must avoid gluten for the rest of their lives
Without treatment, people with celiac disease can develop complications such as osteoporosis, anemia, and cancer.
Conclusion
I chose this disease as my project topic, because "Digestive Disorders" is such a broad topic with so many different levels to research. I learned about different diseases from various areas of the body that each occurred in unique ways. The most interesting thing i learned from this topic, is how easy it is to get a digestive disorder, and that if not taken care of properly, a small stomach-ache can develop into something very serious such as cancer. The most important source i used for this project was obviously the internet, and i used the website: "National Digestive Disorder Information Clearinghouse", which provided hundreds of different digestive disorders from A-Z. I would most definitely use this source to learn more about this topic and answer any questions i have. I feel that my strengths in this project, was organizing all my information into an interesting and colorful presentation to entertain my audience. My weaknesses may have been organizing my time for the project, as well as gathering more sources for more accurate information.
10 tips for improving and maintaing your digestive health
Eat a high-fiber diet
Get insoluble and soluble fiber
Limit foods that are high in fat
Choose lean meats
Incorporate probiotics into your diet
Eat on schedule
Stay hydrated
Skip bad habits:
smoking
alchohol
etc.
Excercise regularly
Why is this so important?
About 90 million people in the U.S are affected by all digesive disorders
Digestive Disorders account for more than 104 million doctor visits per year
Bibliography
• "Ballard, Carol. The Digestive System: Injury, Illness and Health. Oxford: Heinemann Library, 2004. Print.

• "Causes of Digestive Problems From a Minor Stomach Ache to Colon Cancer." Causes Of Digestive Problems From a Minor Stomach Ache to Colon Cancer. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

• "National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)." Celiac Disease. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, Sept. 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.

• "National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)." Irritable Bowel Syndrome. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, Sept. 2013. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.

• “National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)." Proctitis. Ed. Brooks Cash and Lindsay Jones. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, July 2011. Web. 22 Jan. 2014.

• "National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)." Proctitis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, July 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.

• "Proctitis Basics." WebMD. WebMD, 04 May 0000. Web. 13 Mar. 2014

• . "Understanding Ulcers -- Treatment." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.

Hope you enjoyed! :)
Parts of the Digestive System
Mouth
The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use
Pharynx
A passageway of both air and food
The pharynx also receives the food in the digestive system after being swallowed and pushes it to the esophagus
This part of the body also aids in equalisation of the air pressure in the middle ear and in the production of sound through the vocal cords.
Esophagus
The esophagus is a muscular tube that is used to receive food when it is swallowed
The food passes from the pharynx to the stomach while using muscular contractions called peristalsis to push food down to the stomach.
Stomach
The stomach is a J-shaped sac connecting the esophagus above and the small intestine below
Large Intestine
Small Intestine
The stomach wall is composed of four layers. The inner lining (mucosa) consists of millions of microscopic glands which secrete gastric juices. Beneath this is a supporting layer (submucosa) and beneath this is the muscle layer. This is responsible for stomach contractions and emptying. Finally there is a thin outer covering known as the serosa.
The small intestine is the part of the intestines where 90% of the digestion and absorption of food occurs, the other 10% taking place in the stomach and large intestine. The main function of the small intestine is to absorb nutrients and minerals from food.
The small intestine consists of three sections. The first portion, called the duodenum, connects to the stomach. The middle portion is the jejunum. The final section, called the ileum, attaches to the first portion of the large intestine.
The major function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter and transmit the useless waste material from the body.
The large intestine, particularly the appendix, is a convergence of several lymphoid tissues. These play an important role in immunity.
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