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06.07 Integrating Information
Transcript of 06.07 Integrating Information
Supreme Court building on May 18, 1954, the day following the Court's historic decision in Brown v. Board of Education. Nettie is holding a newspaper with the headline "High Court Bans Segregation in Public Schools."
06.07 Integrating Information
Integrated Direct Quotation
According to an article published by Educational Broadcasting Corporation, Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century, unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
ARIZONA STATE LEGISLATURE v. ARIZONA
The Court said, segregation had become an essential component of a citizen's public life, forming the basis of democratic citizenship, normal socialization, and professional training. In this context, any child denied a good education would be unlikely to succeed in life. Where a state, therefore, has undertaken to provide universal education, such education becomes a right that must be afforded equally to both blacks and whites.
Opposition to Brown I and II reached an apex in Cooper v. Aaron (1958), when the Court ruled that states were constitutionally required to implement the Supreme Court's integration orders
the electorate shares lawmaking authority on equal footing with the Arizona Legislature. The voters may adopt laws and constitutional amendments by ballot initiative, and they may approve or disapprove, by referendum, measures passed by the Legislature. Ariz. Const., Art. IV, pt. 1, §1. “Any law which may be enacted by the Legislature . . . may be enacted by the people under the Initiative.” Art. XXII, §14.
The Arizona Legislature has standing to bring this suit. In claiming that Proposition 106 stripped it of its alleged constitutional prerogative to engage in redistricting and that its injury would be remedied by a court order enjoining the proposition’s enforcement, the Legislature has shown injury that is ‘concrete and particularized’ and ‘actual or imminent,’
Elections Clause permits the people of Arizona to provide for redistricting by independent commission. The history and purpose of the Clause weigh heavily against precluding the people of Arizona from creating a commission operating independently of the state legislature to establish congressional districts.
"President Theodore Roosevelt:." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1 Aug. 2014. Web. 1 Aug. 2014.
From my source on Mr. Roosevelt, ‘’ Executive orders are, loosely speaking, presidential directives that require or authorize some action within the executive branch (though they often extend far beyond the government). They are presidential edicts, legal instruments that create or modify laws, procedures, and policy by fiat. Working from their position as chief executive and commander in chief, presidents have used executive orders to make momentous policy choices, creating and abolishing executive branch agencies, reorganizing administrative and regulatory processes, determining how legislation is implemented, and taking whatever action is permitted within the boundaries of their constitutional or statutory authority. Even within the confines of their executive powers, presidents have been able to "legislate" in the sense of making policy that goes well beyond simple administrative activity. Yale Law School professor E. Donald Elliot has argued that many of the thousands of executive orders "plainly 'make law' in every sense’’
Mr. Roosevelt had passed on the date of ‘’January 06 1919’’ Of course everybody knows this but what makes it special is that he issued his very last Mr. Roosevelt had passed on the date of ‘’January 06 1919’’ Of course everybody knows this but what makes it special is that he issued his very last
Within the civil rights community the executive order became a very powerful symbol of the presidential commitment to racial equality in that time. Shortly afterward when John F. Kennedy's initiation as president, Martin Luther King, Jr. , had urged the new president to use his executive authority’s to combat all of the racial discrimination, quoting the historical practice’s of presidents' issuing civil rights executive orders "of an remarkable range and significance." It was through an executive order that the orders "affirmative action" became part of the national consciousness, shortly after President Kennedy used the term in an executive order establishing the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity, and subsequently after President Lyndon Baines Johnson talked about it in a follow-on order that made eligibility for the governments contracts which are conditional upon the fulfillment of decent, favorable action programs