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Transcript of Wolves
Different Breeds of Wolves
Alaskan Tundra Wolf
Alexander Archipelago Wolf
Cascade Mountain Wolf
Eastern Timber Wolf
Great Plains Wolf
Hudson Bay Wolf
Northern Rocky Mountains Wolf
Southern Rocky Mountains Wolf
Texas Grey Wolf
Vancouver Island Wolf
Alaskan tundra wolves generally live in small packs consisting of parents and their young that have not yet found a mate. The alpha male leads the pack, followed in seniority by the alpha female, his mate. All adults participate in raising the wolf cubs and all wolves participate in the hunt. Although the wolves tend to live in packs, some young animals break away and live alone. The Alaskan tundra wolf feeds primarily on caribou and muskoxen. Adult prey is generally too large for a lone wolf, requiring cooperation in a pack to successfully bring it down.If the wolves are unable to ambush their prey, muskoxen often form a circle to protect the vulnerable herd members. Unable to break through the circle, the wolves agitate their prey, attempting to get them to flee. If the herd flees, the wolves isolate and kill one of the weaker oxen
Typically smaller than the other Alaskan subspecies of wolf, the Alexander Archipelago Wolf averages between 30-50 pounds.They are about three and a half feet long and 2ft high at the shoulder. Their coat is generally a dark gray, with varying patterns of lighter shades. Individuals from different islands in the archipelago have a propensity for different color phases, from pure black to combinations of black and white to a much brighter cinnamon color. Primary prey of this species is the Sitka Black-tailed Deer, of which it consumes more than 90% of the time. The next closest consumed species, less than 10%, is the North American Beaver. It is estimated that an average member of the Alexander Archipelago Wolf species eats around 26 deer per year. This habit of feeding almost entirely on a single species is peculiar to the Alexander Archipelago Wolf and is not seen in other North American wolf species.
The arctic wolf inhabits the Canadian Arctic and the islands, parts of Alaska and northern part of Greenland. The arctic wolf is the only subspecies of the Gray Wolf that still can be found over the whole of its original range, largely because, in their natural habitat, they rarely encounter humans. The arctic wolf is also the only subspecies of wolf which is not threatened - their remote home means that they are relatively safe from man's activities, both in terms of hunting and habitat destruction. The arctic wolf can withstand the arctic weather, with the help in their thoroughly insulated fur. They can survive in sub-zero temperatures for years, in absolute darkness for five months per year, and without food for weeks. Arctic Wolves usually travel in packs of 2 to 20. They live in small family groups: a breeding pair (alpha male and female) and their pups. The pack works together to feed and care for their pups. Lone arctic wolves are young males that have left their pack to seek their own territories. They avoid other wolves, unless they are able to mate. Having found an abandoned territory, a lone arctic wolf will claim it by marking the territory with its scent, then gather other lone wolves into its pack. When the female is pregnant, she leaves the pack to dig a den to raise her pups. If the ice is too thick, she will move to a den or cave.
Cascade Mountains Wolf, was a subspecies of the gray wolf and was normally found in British Columbia, Oregon, and Washington. It was originally identified as a separate species from other wolves in the area by Edward Goldman in 1945, though the authority for the species was made much earlier by Richardson in 1839. The species itself became extinct in 1940. The Cascade Mountains Wolf was described as a cinnamon colored wolf measuring 165 cm and weighing 36–49 kg.
The Eastern Wolf is smaller than the Gray Wolf. It has a pale greyish-brown pelt. The back and the sides are covered with long, black hairs. Behind the ears, there is a slight reddish color. The Eastern Wolf is also skinnier than the Gray Wolf and has a more coyote-like appearance. Grey wolves will attack, kill or drive out coyotes if they find them, but recent studies by John and Mary Theberge suggest that Algonquin wolf males mate and accept coyote females. John Theberge states that, because coyotes are smaller than wolves, that female wolves would be less likely to accept a smaller mate.The Eastern Wolf preys on white-tailed deer, moose, and rodents including beaver, muskrat, and mice. Preying on American black bear was also reported. Studies in Algonquin Provincial Park showed that three species accounted for 99% of the wolves' diet: moose (some of which is scavenged), white-tailed deer, and beaver (ca. 33% each). The wolves tend to prey more frequently on beaver in the summer, and on white-tailed deer in the winter.
The Great Plains wolf, also known as the Buffalo wolf, is the most common subspecies of the gray wolf in the continental United States. It currently inhabits the western Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. A typical Great Plains wolf is between 4½ and 6½ feet long, from snout to tail, weighs from 60 to 110 pounds, and may have a coat of gray, black or buff with red-ish coloring. Like all wolves, the Great Plains wolf is a very social animal that communicates using body language, scent marking and vocalization with an average pack size of five to six wolves. The territory size for the Great Plains wolf depends on the type and density of prey. Typical prey for the Great Plains wolf consists of white-tailed deer, moose, beaver, snowshoe hare, and smaller birds and mammals. The Great Plains wolf is found in the Eastern distinct population segment (DPS) categorized under the Endangered Species Act which is now awaiting new legislation to completely remove it from the endangered species list.
The Greenland Wolf is described as being small to medium in stature, but extremely light in weight. However, this understanding of the size of the Greenland Wolf is derived from only five specimens that were caught in winter, so their light weight could be attributed to malnutrition. Because of its close proximity to the range of the Arctic wolf, the Greenland Wolf has commonly been disputed as being a truly separate subspecies. Most biologists accept the fact that the Greenland Wolf migrated from Canada by crossing the frozen sea ice between the two regions, an activity that is often documented in modern times when the Nares Strait freezes. One of the major problems in properly classifying the Greenland Wolf lies in the fact that the wolf population is very low in Greenland and it is difficult to find and document the subspecies at all. Because of this, there are no proper studies that have been conducted that can be compared to other studies done on North American wolves.
The Hudson Bay Wolf is a subspecies of the gray wolf. They are sometimes called Tundra wolves, though they are an entirely different subspecies of the gray wolf. They are primarily found in the areas around Hudson Bay, namely Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. They were hunted in the 19th century and early 20th century for their pelts. The Hudson Bay Wolf averages 3-5 feet long and 28-36 inches high. Their weight varies from 80-125 pounds, though individuals weighing up to 140 pounds have been found. Females are slightly smaller than males. Their fur ranges from a light gray to a yellowish-white or cream color. Their fur lightens in the winter. They are similar to the Mackenzie Valley wolf, only smaller. Like other wolves, they hunt in packs. They eat large ungulates such as caribou, moose and bison. When food is scarce, they will also feed on carrion and smaller animals. It has been said that they require about 10 pounds of meat per day.
In Alaska, pack sizes are generally 6–12 wolves, with some packs as large as 20–30. Wolf packs in Yellowstone average 9.2 wolves per pack, while wolf packs in Idaho average 11.1. The majority of the Mackenzie Valley Wolf's prey includes wild boar, wood bison, muskox, moose, caribou, deer, and elk. Mackenzie Valley Wolves introduced into Yellowstone have taken down adult Plains Bison, proving their success and adaptability in a whole new environment. Mackenzie Valley Wolves are not the most successful when it comes to killing moose, with a success rate as low as 10%. When preying on medium to large-sized animals such as caribou and elk, pack members will in turn chase an ill or disadvantaged prey and wait till they tire. They will then slowly start to tear away at the prey, attacking the flanks, the muzzle, neck, and hindquarters. Prey usually die from disembowelment, shock, and exhaustion caused by lack of air through suffocation and blood loss. For small prey, wolves will bite down and sever the jugular veins and windpipe, sometimes even shaking to break the animals vertebrae.
The Mexican Wolf is the smallest Gray Wolf subspecies present in North America. Reaching an overall length no greater than 3.9–4.9 ft and a maximum height of about 31 in, it is around the size of a German Shepherd. Weight ranges from 27–37 kilograms (60–82 lb). In stature, it resembles some European wolves, though its head is usually broader, its neck thicker, its ears longer and its tail shorter. In March 1998, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) began reintroducing Mexican Wolves into the Blue Range area of Arizona. The overall objective of this program was to reestablish 100 Mexican Wolves in the Apache and Gila National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico by 2008. There are 47 Mexican Wolf breeding facilities in United States and Mexico with the largest in the world being the Wild Canid Survival and Research Center near Eureka, Missouri, which was founded in 1971 by naturalist Marlin Perkins. Another captive breeding center that was founded in 1977 is the California Wolf Center located in Julian, California. The Center is the third largest breeding and host facility for Mexican gray wolves in the United States.
The Newfoundland wolf was a subspecies of the gray wolf, which existed on the island of Newfoundland off the east coast of Canada. This extinct wolf was said to have been a large, white animal with a black stripe down its spine. European settlers were quick to view the wolf as a cattle killer, and so set out to destroy the island population by setting a bounty on the animal. The subspecies was not formally described until after its extinction. Appropriately, its scientific name means "Beothuk Wolf"—after the Native American inhabitants of Newfoundland (the Beothuk) who are likewise extinct.
The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf is a subspecies of the grey wolf. They generally weighs 70–135 pounds and stands at 26-32 inches, making it one of the largest subspecies of the gray wolf in existence. It is a lighter colored animal than its southern brethren, the Southern Rocky Mountains Wolf, with a coat that includes far more white and less black. In general, the subspecies favors lighter colors, with black mixing in among them. The Northern Rocky Mountains Wolf preys primarily on the Rocky Mountain Elk, the Rocky Mountain mule deer, and the North American Beaver, though it is an opportunistic animal and will prey upon other species if the chance arises. But, for the most part, small prey animals do not make up a large part of its diet. When an individual or a pack is able to take down numerous prey, the amount a Northern Rocky Mountains Wolf eats daily will generally make up about 10-21% of its body mass, though there have been recorded instances of an individual eating up to 37% of its body mass. However, when prey is not as plentiful, Northern Rocky Mountains wolves are able to survive for considerably long periods of time while eating only small amounts. Cannibalism, in times of severe food shortage, occurs, as a pack will kill and eat an injured or weak member of the group.
Male red wolves are approximately 10% larger than females. Coat long, coarse; mostly brown and buff colored on the upper part of the body with some black along the backs. Muzzle long; nose pad wide and black; ears rufous; legs long; tail long, bushy, black tipped. Body is intermediate in size between the gray wolf and the coyote. The red wolf pup begins life with a slate or dark gray pelt with auburn-tinged fur visible on its head. As it matures, this color changes color to a mixture of buff, tawny, cinnamon and brown along the body and a black tipped tail; it often has black guard hairs too and sometimes presents with black or dark bars on its forelegs. Black or melanistic individuals once occurred; such individuals were more common in Florida and in western areas. The pelt molts once annually in the winter. Its muzzle is white furred around the lips. The red wolf is generally intermediate in size between the coyote and the gray wolf. However, the disproportionately long legs & large ears are two obvious features that separate red wolves from coyotes and gray wolves. Its overall appearance is more slender and gracile than that of a grey wolf.
The Southern Rocky Mountains Wolf was a subspecies of the gray wolf that used to roam in the regions in and around Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado. They became extinct in 1935.
The Southern Rocky Mountains Wolf was a medium-size wolf that weighed around 90 lbs on average. It is considered to have been the "second largest wolf in the United States". The coloring of the subspecies tended toward black, with lighter areas on the edges of its fur and white in various small patches. Their primary range type included "coniferous forests, woodlands, and adjacent grasslands", which was all included in the states that it used to roam.
The Texas Wolf was a subspecies of the gray wolf that primarily roamed in Texas and New Mexico. The subspecies became extinct in 1942, but was merged posthumously into a taxonomic category beneath the Mexican wolf. The subspecies was described as being dark colored, with mixtures of black and grey across its entire body and light patches of cinnamon coloring on the top of its head. It measured 135–150 cm in length, and weighed 27–36 kg, very similar in size and appearance to the Mogollon Mountain Wolf.
The Vacouver Island Wolf is very social with other wolves, and lives in packs of about five to thirty-five. It is an endangered subspecies, very shy, and is rarely seen by humans. Wolves at the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve area have been known to attack and kill unguarded domestic dogs. There are also two Vancouver Island Wolves at the Greater Vancouver Zoo. The Vancouver Island wolf is of medium size, measuring roughly 26 to 32 inches high, 4 to 5 feet from nose to end of tail, and weighing 65 to 90 pounds. It is usually a mix of grey, brown, and black. Occasionally, they are seen pure white. The wolf's main food sources are the Columbian black-tailed deer and the Roosevelt elk.
Dens may be a deep riverbank hollow, a cleft between rocks, a hollow log, a space under an upturned tree or a space under a rock overhang. Sometimes wolves will use abandoned dens of other animals. The alpha Male is very protective of the den. He will often act as a decoy, leading predators away from the den. The entrance to the den is about 20-28 inches wide and 15-20 inches high. Den sites are often near a source of water.
Wolf pups are born with their eyes closed
The wolf pups will open their eyes
The pups will begin to explore the den
The pups begin to eat meat and go outside the den
The pups begin traveling with the adult wolves
Wolf pups are usually born with blue eyes but after a year, they turn yellow.
Pup Growing Up
Two twins on a log
You gotta wonder what they are looking at
Who ya lookin' at?
For me? Why thank you
MOMMY! FEED US!
Don't worry. I'll protect you
Thank you for viewing. I hope you enjoyed it.
This presentation was made by Jerico Wilson :)