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Spinal Cord Injuries

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Stephany Silva

on 20 April 2016

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Transcript of Spinal Cord Injuries

Spinal Cord Injuries
Quadriplegia
Paraplegia
Impariment in motor or sensory function of lower extremities
Specific Forms: Spastic paraplegia(a group of inherited diseases w/ progressive stiffness and contraction in the lower limbs) and flaccid paralysis(weakness and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause).










Recap:
What is a SCI

Types of SCI

Etiology of Traumatic SCI

Quadriplegia

Paraplegia

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Incomplete SCI
Things to keep in mind when dealing with SCI..
Injuries may not be obvious
Time management is crucial
Safety
C-Spine stabilization
Act quickly

Spinal Cord is the pathway from the
BRAIN
to the
REST
of the body

Suspect SCI, consider any injury to be life-threatening
Treatment:

Overview
Not much you can do

Some can still walk to a certain extent (incomplete paraplegia)

Wheel Chair

Standing frame, hoyer lift, or walker

Physcial therapy

Questions?
Treatment Continued
Other Incomplete Injuries
Anterior Cord Syndrome

Central Cord Syndrome

Posterior Cord Syndrome

Brown Sequard Syndrome
Etiology
Tramuatic
MVA
Falls
Sports
Work
Penetration

Non-Traumatic
Cancer
Infection
Diseases
Loss of blood supply
Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)
Kimberly Finer

Andrew Giamminonni

Shanel Roy

Stephany Silva
What spinal cord injuries are
Types of SCI
Causes
Treatments/considerations
Quadriplegia
Paraplegia
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Incomplete Cord Syndromes
Weird Facts:
Phantom Pains
52% of SC injuried individuals are considered Paraplegic
82% are Male
18% Female


SCI Commonly Caused by:
MVA 37%

Violence 28%

Falls 21%

Sports 6%

Other 8%
What:
How:
Injury to the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral region of the spine
Tumor or other diseases in spinal canal
Brain has trouble communicating with lower part of body
What happens afterward?
Possibility for nerves to start working again
Loss of control of bladder/bowels
Immobilization of body parts located beneath injured area
Medical Terminology:
7 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral (fused)

Refer to specific areas using first letter
of region and the number
e.g. L2
i.e. Lumbar Vertebrae #2
To inform you on spinal cord injuries (SCI) Specifically, traumatic injuries.
Purpose:
Cauda Equina Syndrome
What is it?
The nerves in the lumbar spine are compressed cutting off sensation and the ability of movement

The nerves that control function of bladder and the bowel are especially vulnerable to damage
Causes :
Primarily in adults and trauma related
Tumor
Infections
Herniated disk
Symptoms:

Bladder dysfunction
Severe problems in lower extermites
Motor weakness
Recent violent injury to posterior
History of cancer
Recent lumbar spine surgery
Physical Examination
Assess of the following:

Stability
Strength
Motion
Alignment
Sensation
Doctor may ask one to:

Stand
Sit
Walk on toes
Lift legs
Take blood sample
Treatments
-Surgery
Relieves pressure of the nerves by removing compressing structures and increasing space availbility

-Drug Therapy
Cauda Equina
-Must be treated immediately in order to relieve pressure or will lead to permanent damage
Peramanent Paralysis
Impaired bladder and bowel control
Loss of sexual sensation
Loss of movement
Background:

Also referred to as tetraplegia
Tetra (four) Damage to all four limbs
Caused by damage to the cervial spine C1-C7
Spinal cord damage is second to damage of vertebrae in the cerival spine
Injury to spinal cord structure (lesion) could result in partial or permanent loss of function in all limbs
Causes:
Traumas; car crash, sports injuries, etc.
Polio, transverse myelitis
Ruptured disc of bone could cause damage to the cervical vertebrae
Damage to C1-C4 alters arm sensation and movement
Finger dysfunction
Symptoms:
First Symptom
Torso impairment functions
Other impaired functions
Damage to C1; loss of function from the neck down
Damage to C8 nerve; loss of function from chest down
Degrees of Injury:
Crucial part of diagnosing severity
Complete severity
Partial severity
Common misconception about quadriplegia
Functions depending on severity
What is a Spinal Cord Injury?
Tear of the spinal cord
Bruising
Compression
Cell damage in spinal cord
Diagnosis
X-Rays
CT scans
MRI
Standard Neurological Classification of SCI
Motor
Sensory
Spinal Region
Levels
Full transcript