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Causes, events, and effects of the thirty years war
Transcript of Causes, events, and effects of the thirty years war
Phase 3/Swedish Phase
This phase began with a Lutheran Swedish King, Adolphus, arriving in Germany. Sweden aided the oppressed Protestants, and France aided Sweden, hoping to weaken the Habsburgs. The swedes won many decisive battles, though Adolphus was mortally wounded in one. Sweden's victories lessened the Habsburg ambitions at unifying the empire.
Inside the Holy Roman Empire, Lutheran princes were acquiring German bishoprics, which frightened Catholic princes. Lutherans were being converted back to Catholicism, which frightened Lutherans. Both religions formed alliances within the empire. Violence first erupted when Ferdinand of Styria closed protestant churches, and protestants then hurled two of Ferdinand's officials from a castle window. The Thirty Years war then followed
Phase 1/Bohemian Phase
This phase was the civil war in Bohemia, between Ferdinand and his Catholic League, and Frederick and his Protestant Union. The Bohemians themselves fought for independence and religious choice. Ferdinand, the newly appointed emperor, defeated Frederick, and eliminated protestantism in Bohemia. Ten years later, Bohemia was entirely Catholic
Phase 2/Danish Phase
More Catholic victories were witnessed in this phase. Wallenstein led an army of Catholics in northern Europe. He seemed more focused on building his power than helping the Catholic cause, and Catholic forces were divided. The emperor then issued a decree returning all lost protestant lands, and abolishing all religions in the empire except for Catholicism and Lutheranism
Conclusion to the war
Phase 4/International Phase
This Phase began with the defeat of the Swedes, and the entrance of the French into the war. They entered in order to decrease Habsburg rule, which increased France's international power. France declared war on Spain and sent aid to Sweden and Protestant German princes. The Dutch, French, and Swedes were supported by Scots, Finns, and German mercenaries. The war lasted so long, because neither side had the resources to gain the upper hand. Peace was finally achieved in 1648 through the Peace of Westphalia.
The Peace of Westphalia stopped the Thirty Years War, as well as many other religious conflicts. It also recognized the power of three hundred German princes. It also began the limitation of the emperor's power. Political boundaries also changed. The United Provinces of the Netherlands became officially independent. France acquired Alsace. Sweden received large amounts of cash, and some German territories. It also revoked papal power in Imperial affairs. At the end of the war, population and production declined in the Empire, and inflation and disease increased drastically.