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ICE CREAM

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by

Louise Thompson

on 4 June 2015

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Transcript of ICE CREAM

Core Components
ice crystals
milk fat
emulsion / emulsifiers
pasteurization
homogenization
aging / freezing
Emulsion
the process of combining different substances which under normal circumstances would separate from each other
emulsifiers: a substance that stabilizes an emulsion by increasing kinetic stability
mechanisms of emulsion
surface tension theory
repulsion theory
viscosity modification
coalescence
Stabilizers
an additive to food which help preserve its structure
deduce melting rate
manipulates texture
improve stability
closely related to emulsifiers
prevent large crystal formation
act like a sponge
Pasteurization
mild form of thermal processing
high temperature, short time
Millard Reaction: chemical reaction between proteins and sugars
1. carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the amino group of the amino acid
2. the unstable glycosylamine undergoes Amadori rearrangement
3. ketosamines react

ICE CREAM
Now lets go make ice cream that's out of this world!!!
Homogenization
process of making a mixture of two mutually insoluble liquids the same throughout
two types
primary homogenization
secondary homogenization
milk homogenization
prevents variety in flavor and fat concentration
enhances the emulsion of fat into the base
improved capacity to hold air
adds body
stabilizes and soothes
Aging and Freezing
while aging, the chemical ingredients in the base settle
aging and myriad
dissolved solutes decrease freezing point
freezing point depression is a colligative property
WE ALL SCREAM FOR ICE CREAM!!
* ice cream truck music *
ICE CREAM INC.
FORMATION
Nucleation
process begins when the initial cluster as a loose aggregation of molecules begins to lose energy
process occurs in different ways
primary nucleation
secondary nucleation
factors can affect the process
driving force
agitation
sucrose
Growth
after ice nucleates, it needs to grow to disk-shaped crystals
water must diffuse to the growing crystal surface
effect of growing conditions
slow vs. fast freezing
Recrystallization
ripening or coarsening
can occur both during the crystallization process or after
occurs because a system trends towards an equilibrium with minimal free energy
three main types of recrystallization
isomass
migratory
accretion
Ice Crystal Size
total solids
milk fat, non-milk solids, sugar, eggs
fat
sugar
air bubbles
residence time
hardening time
MILK FAT
Planet uninhabited.
Move to the next planet.

Ice Crystals
ICE CRYSTAL SIZE
Size does matter.
Fat in Ice Cream
Creation
fat globes
fatty-acids
hydrocarbon chain and carboxy group (-COOH)
saturated- single bond
unsaturated- one double bond
polysaturated- more than one double bond
The Outer Reaches...
Supercooling
occurs when temperature of a liquid drops below its freezing point
water molecules are constantly coming together
held by hydrogen bonds
clusters gain enough molecules to survive as a crystal nuclei
Full transcript