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AP Human Geography
Transcript of AP Human Geography
the production of crops without
the use of synthetic or industrially
produced pesticides and fertilizers. the deliberate tending of crops and
livestock to produce, food, feed, and fiber. Primary Economic Activity involves those products closest to the ground
such as agriculture Secondary Economic Activity those activities that take a primary product and manufacture it. Economic Activities Tertiary Economic Activities Part of the Service Industry, connecting consumers and producers, such as a banker Quaternary Economic Activity
Activities concerning the exchange of information and money. Quinary Economic Activity Activities concerning research or higher education Root Crop crop cultivated by cultivating roots Seed Crop Crop produced by planting seeds Subsistance Agriculture Growing only as much as you need to survive Slash- and - Burn Von Thunen Model used to show the location of agriculture Political Geography State
Politically organized territory with sovereign government and recognized by significant portion of the international community. For example, the United States America Territoriality Sense of property and attachment toward territory and a determination to keep it strongly defended. The study of the political oganization of the world Soverenignity Final authority over social, economic, and political matters that rests in the rulers of that state. Territorial Integrity The right of state to defend sovereign territory against other states. Peace of Westphalia Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the 30 years war Mercantilism Promotion of commercialism and trade. Nation Culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future. For Example, the Kurds Nation- State Politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space, for example, France The idea that the people of a state are the ultimate sovereign Democracy Multinational State
A State that holds more than one nation, for example, Transylvania Multistate Nation A nation that occupies more than one State, for example, Transylvania. Stateless Nation A Nation that does not have a state, for example, Kurdistan Wallerstein World Systems Theory 1) The World Economy has one market and a global division of labor 2) Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. 3) The world economy has three- tier structure
semi- periphery Devolution The movement of power from central government to regional governments. Ethnocultural Devolution Movements Devolution due to Ethnocultural differences, for example, Scotland Economic Devolutionary Forces Devolution movements fueled by economic forces, for example, Catalonia, Spain Spatial Devolutionary Forces Devolutionary movements affected by distance and remoteness Boundries an imaginary vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above. geometric boundries drawn using grid system. used in North America between the US and Canada. physical- political boundries drawn using a physical geographic feature, used in North America between the US and Mexico at the Rio Grande Ratzell From the German school of Geopolotics. Organic Theory of Evolution of Nations, saying that countries need to keep taking more land to keep up with growth. Mackinder Heartland Theory. who rules Eaast Europe commands the Heartland
who rules the Heartland commands the World Island
who rules the World Island commands the World Supranational Organization a seperate entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefits and pursuit the same goals. For exampe, EU Migration Cyclic Movement journeys that begin at our home base and bring us back to it. For example, an activity space. movement that results in permanent relocation across significant distances Periodic Movement journeys that start at home base and return back to it, but there is a longer period gone between departure and arrival. migrant labor Military Service transhumance Forced Migration: impostion of authority producing involuntary migration. For example, The Atlantic Slave Trade. Voluntary Migration: occurs when a migrant weighs options and chooses to migrate. Ravenstein answered the question why people voluntarialy migrate 1) Every migration flow generates a counter- migration
2) The majority of migrants move a short distance
3) Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big city destinations
4) Urban residences are less migratory than rural inhabitance
5) Families are less likely to make international migrations Push Factors: the conditions and preceptions that help a migrant decide to leave a place Pull Factors: circumstances that effectively attract a migrant to certain locales from other places. Distance Decay Step Migration: migration streams that on maps appear long and unbroken.
village> town> city> metropolis Chain Migration: Migration that occurs when a migrant writes or calls or communicates to home about the new place. swells in migration from one origin to the same destination Immagration Waves Guest Workers Western European governments call the labor migrants guest workers Unit 4, 5, 6