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Transcript of The Renaissance
New law of Physics-Law of the Pendulum's Periodic Swing.
Questioned Aristotle's theories.
Biggest contribution= invention of the telescope.
Supporter of Copernicus's theory. Galileo Alchemy Process of attempting to transform metals in to gold.
Goes back to the Medieval era. Alchemy was considered valid until modern science.
Mostly associated with Black Magic.
Gained encouragement from Queen Elizabeth I, but with new discoveries in modern science, people grew skeptical. Modified from the Julian Calendar.
Years only divisible by 400 are leap years.
Around the same length of time as a tropical year-how long it takes Earth to orbit the sun.
First used in 1582.
England and the American colonies did not use it until 1752. Gregorian Calendar The Catholic Church had a lot of authority over government affairs, however, many people questioned the Church's authority. Religion Queen Elizabeth favored Protestantism.
Catholics had hopes on Mary Stewart, a devout Catholic.
Mary Stewart was held prisoner in Northern because she fled Scotland for killing her second husband.
While Mary stayed in the North, Elizabeth was more vulnerable.
Murder plots and rebellions against her involving Mary Stewart.
Mary Stewart was executed in 1587. Mary Elizabeth Vs. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Politics Born: June 28th 1491
Became King: April 21st 1509
Died: January 28th 1547 King Henry VIII King Henry VIII Used to be a supporter of the Catholic Church.
Wrote a book attacking Martin Luther and was named "Defender of the Faith" by the Catholic Church.
Opinions of the Catholic Church changed when he wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, the Catholic Church would not approve.
Protestant Reformation gained more support and the Catholic Church was dissolving.
Finally had a son with marriage to Jane Seymour, Edward VI- made sure his son was educated only in Protestantism. Martin Luther, a German monk, was bothered by the fact that people could buy there way into heaven.
Developed 95 Theses, made following points:
1. Pope false authority, Bible true authority.
2. Win salvation with faith in God’s forgiveness.
3. Everyone believes Christ equal, can interpret Bible for themselves.
95 Theses were posted throughout Germany, and when news got to the Pope, Luther was excommunicated.
Went into exile for ten months and when he came back....
1. Ministers wore regular clothing, preached in German
2. Ministers also married
3. Christians developed own religion based on reforms called Lutheranism Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation Decreased noble power and increased parliaments
Had six wives, 2 of which were beheaded
Act of Supremecy - King was head of Church of England
Desperatly wanted a son, and had prince Edward VI who died at age 15 of tuberculosis
Began charismatic, athletic, and kind but turned cruel and hypocritical
Was known as an infamous tyrant Queen Mary I "Bloody Mary" Born: February 18th 1516
Became Queen: July 1553
Died: Novemeber 17th 1558 Daughter of Queen Katherine of Aragon
Imprisoned Lady Jane Grey and Elizabeth I in the London Tower
Executed over 300 protestants, and earned nickname "Bloody Mary"
Died of ovarian cancer while thinking she was pregnant Born: September 7th 1533
Became Queen: January 15th 1558
Died: March 24th 1603 Queen Elizabeth I Later years of reign were referred to as a "golden age"
Literature and arts flourished under her
Popular ruler with a great reputation
Established many needed laws, such as the poor laws Born: June 19th 1566
Became King: March 25th 1603
Died: March 27th 1625 King James I Cousin of Elizabeth I - she had no heir
Was not a popular ruler
Relied heavily on diplomacy
Claimed Divine Right on crown
Strongly disliked Puritans Literature Francesco Petrarch
Focused on studying and translating old latin and Greek literature
Was a Popular poet who published several large works of poetry
Wrote the cannoiere, a collection of love sonnets written in italian dedicated to his love
Set the sonnet form to be employed by furute authors such as Shakespeare Famous Authors
of the Early Renaissance Giovanni Boccaccio
Was Petrarch disciple
His major work was the Decameron, a collection of 100 stories told by story tellers over 10 nights
Decameron became a source of inspiration for future authors
Help inspire Marlowe and Shakespeare. Born February 6 1564
Died May 30 1597 Christopher Marlowe Christened at the St. George Church, Canterbury
Educated at King James School
Was a famous playwright and author
Wrote Several great plays before his young death in 1593 Most popular Plays
Tamburrane the Great
The Second Part of Tamburrane the Great
Massacre of Paris
The passionate Shepherd to his love Born April 26 1564
Died April 25 1616 William Shakespeare Was born in Stratford-upon-Avon
Baptized 26th April 1564
Went to school at the King Edward VI School
By the time of his death, wrote almost 40 plays and 150 sonnets
Wrote mostly on beauty, love, youth, age, and birth Hamlet: Shakespeare's most famous works Recites the tale of Hamlet who seeks revenge on his uncle Claudius, who murdered the king and married Hamlet's mother. Hamlet was Shakespeare's longest play. Romeo and Juliet: Considered one of Shakespeare's early plays if not his first. Romeo and Juliet tells the tale of two star-crossed lovers who's death unite their two feuding families together Macbeth: Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. Macbeth tells of the dangers of the lust for power and the betrayal of friends Henry V: Focusing on the life of King Henry V and the the events during the hundred year war, Henry V is the final part of a tetrology The King James bible is the English translation of the Latin bible The King James Bible First manuscripts were written in 1380 A.D by John Wycliffe, because of his opposition of the Church
Wycliffe burned at the stake with the manuscript Bibles used as kindling
1603 King James I was heading to London when he was presented with a petition of grievances by those clergy with Puritan convictions
He held a conference "for hearing and for determining of things pretended to be amiss in the church." Fifty-four of the greatest biblical scholars in Great Britain were chosen to begin the project. They were divided into six groups - three assigned to the Old Testament and three to the New Testament The translation began in 1607, was completed in 1610, and made available to the public in 1611. This version is commonly known as the "1611" Three editions followed the first printing which contained numerous misprints.
Controversial marginal notes that had been excluded totaled 4,000 notes giving literal meanings of Hebrew words
From 1613, a total of 300 differences between the previous translations were rectified Culture Typical family consisted of husband, wife and usually 3-5 children
Most families had 1 or 2 sevants Domestic LIfe Men were the head of the family
Rural men worked in the fields raising livestock
The type of work they did depended on the seasons
Treated wife with love and care Men Women At 6 they would start school
Girls were usually educated at home
Country-side children started helping around the house and farm soon after they learned to walk
When they were teens most left to be servants or laborers for someone else Children There were laws stating what a person could or could not wear called the "Sumptuary Laws" Fashion shirt Men doublet pants shoes Early Renaissance:
Younger men had long hair
older men had short hair Middle Renaissance:
cleanly shaved beards and mustaches Late Renaissance:
most men had short hair Chemise Women Dress Corselet stockings shoes high foreheads were popular
hair was worn in tight bun or braid Architecture built with stone and expensive bricks for durability
columns sometimes framed the entrances Upper-class 2 stories tall
thatched roofs Middle-Class & Lower-Class Women were the property of their husband
they had few legal rights
only widows were considered independent
they were expected to stay home and take care of the house and children
A woman’s work didn’t vary with the season Renaissance means rebirth
Refers to the rebirth of learning
Renewal of interest in study of classical antiquity
Age of new discoveries – intellectual and geographical The Great Chain of Being Philosophical Leisure not common, but well appreciated
Hock Tuesday Every existing thing had its “place” in a planned hierarchical order
Vertically extended chain
-God (not Christian God)
“Place” depended on “spirit” and “matter” Political implications of the Chain of Being Fear of “disorder”, political ramifications
Civil rebellion caused chain to be broken
Doctrine of correspondence: would effect other realms Humanism Social philosophy, intellectual & literary
Stimulated philosophy of secularism, world pleasures appreciation and assertion of personal independence and individual expression
Regarded human beings as social creatures
Renaissance man – participates in affairs of public life, possesses knowledge and skill of many subject areas
Focuses on teaching people to participate/ rule in a society
Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) represented conservative Italian humanism
Humanistic contributions to science – recovery of Greek scientific literature Epicureanism Epicurus of Samos (341-270 BCE) – Greek “garden philosopher, ancient sage
Conveyed the ultimate conviction that individuals can live in serene happiness, fortified by the continual experience of modest pleasures
Includes a theory of conduct, nature and of mind
Prudence is the noblest part of philosophy – source of all pleasure and of all virtues
Purpose of life – personal happiness