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Peer Pressure and Alcohol Consumption Among College Students

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HESC 475

on 22 July 2014

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Transcript of Peer Pressure and Alcohol Consumption Among College Students

13
Peer Pressure: Independent Variable
Social Context of Drinking Scales
30-item questionnaire, divided into 6 different contexts
Assesses how often individuals consume alcohol in various situations

Survey used ONLY the
Peer Acceptance
context
5-items
4-point scale (0 = Never, 3 = Frequently)
Peer Influence on Alcohol Consumption
About 4 out of 5 college students consume alcohol and 50% of them consume alcohol through binge drinking

150,000 college students develop an alcohol related health problem each year

20% of college students qualify as having an alcohol use disorder each year

Social norms tend to mislead the drinking behavior of college students and their peers

College students associate alcohol consumption with social interactions

Peers are primary source of support
Background
The consequences of frequent college drinking:

Poor academic influence
Assault
Sexual Abuse
Accidental Injuries
Multitude of Health Problems
Death or Suicide
Background Con't.
Independent Variable
Variables
Theory of Planned Behavior
Attitude towards Behavior
Subjective Norm
Perceived Behavioral Control
Behavioral Intention
Theory of Planned Behavior Model
Peer Pressure and
Alcohol Consumption Among College Students

Krystal Enojado
Stephanie Kantari
Sarah Radcliffe
Liberty-Ann Riego

Health Science Department, CSUF
May 1, 2014

HESC 475, Section 3 - Dr. Espinoza

College students have false impression on alcohol consumption

There is a direct need to analyze the prevalence of binge drinking and its connection with peer influence

Students' desire to enhance their social image


Few studies have shown a relationship between peer pressure and drinking, but we wanted to further investigate this relationship so it could be generalized back to the population
Bridging the Gap
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationship between peer pressure and alcohol consumption among college students.
3 National Institute on Alcohol, Abuse, and Alcoholism. (2014). 4-5 White, A. & Hingson, R. (2013). 6 Pedersen, E.R., LaBrie, J.W., & Lac, A. (2008). 7 Huchting, K., Lac, A., & LaBrie, J.W. (2008).
8 Grant, A., Bradford, B., & Moreno, M. (2013).
9 Glassman, T., Braun, R., Dodd, V., Miller, J., & Miller, M. (2009).
Dependent Variable
Peer Pressure
Levels of Alcohol Consumption
Quantitative, non-experimental study
Deductive Approach
Participants:
Convenience sample of 139 Health Science Students
113 Females
26 Males
Ages 21 to 54 from a large public university in southern California

Procedure:
participants were given a packet of surveys to complete outside of class time
Methods: Participants & Procedures
Figure 1. Characteristics of Study Participants (n=139)
Age (M, SD) = 23.5 (4.3) years
1.
Attitude Toward the Behavior:
represents college students' beliefs about consuming alcohol in a social environment

2.
Subjective Norm:
peers are considered to be very influential to college students

3.
Perceived Behavioral Control:
impacts a college student's ability to refuse a drink when pressured, in addition to the barriers and facilitators in relation to the consumption of alcohol with peers

4.
Behavioral Intention:
a college student is receptive to the peer pressure to drink
Theory of Planned Behavior
Data Analyses
Results: Descriptive Statistics
Social Context of Drinking Scales (SCDS)
Results: Descriptive Statistics
Results: Relational Statistics
Discussion
Limitations
Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT)
10 items
Identifies early signs of alcohol dependence

First 8 items are measured on a 5-point scale (Ranging from 0=Never to 4=Daily)
Last 2 items measured on a 3-point scale (0=No, 2=Yes, but not in the last year, & 4=Yes, during the last year)

Score of 8+ indicates harmful alcohol use and possible alcohol dependence
12 Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001).
The social context of drinking scale is scored out of 15 points
Mean Sum Score of IV = 3.1
Conclusion
References
Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT)
AUDIT is scored out of 40 points
Score of 8 or higher indicates harmful alcohol use and possible alcohol dependence.
Mean Sum Score of DV = 5.41
43.2% of participants
drink 2 - 4 times a month
Pearson's Correlation
Very weak correlation
between Peer Influence (SCDS) and Alcohol Level Consumption (AUDIT).
(r = .161; p = .059)

*Trend towards significance



Based on our results, we
fail to reject
the null hypothesis. There is
no correlation
between peer influence and alcohol consumption.
Initiation of alcohol usually begins in college

Students desire to be accepted among their peers

Peers influence attitudes and behaviors to drink

Alcohol related health problems that develop annually
No random selection

No accurate representation of population

Small sample size of 139

All participants were Health Science students from a single, large public university

Disproportionate gender distribution

Not representative sample of all race/ethnicities of college students

Recall Bias
We fail to reject the null hypothesis.

There is no correlation between peer pressure and the levels of alcohol consumption.
Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001). AUDIT - The alcohol use disorders identification test.


World Health Organization, 2, 1-40.

Beck, K., Arria, M., Caldeira, K., Vincent, K., O’Grady, K., Wish, E. (2008). Social context of drinking and alcohol problems among

college students.
American Journal of Health Behaviors, 32
(4), 420-430.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (February 2004).
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [survey questionnaire: 1-29].

Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/questionnaires/english.htm.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). CDC - Frequently asked questions - Alcohol. Cdc.gov.
Retrieved from http://

www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm.

Glassman, T., Braun, R., Dodd, V., Miller, J., & Miller, M. (2009) Using the theory of plannedbehavior to explain the drinking motivations

of social, high-risk, and extreme drinkers on game day.
Journal of Community Health, 35
(2), 172-181.

Grant, A., Bradford, B., & Moreno, M. (2013). The disparity between social drinking motives and social outcomes: A new perspective on

college student drinking.
College Student Journal, 47
(1), 96-101.

Huchting, K., Lac, A., & LaBrie, J.W. (2008). An application of theory of planned behavior to sorority alcohol consumption.
Addictive

Behaviors, 33
, 538-551.

National Institute on Alcohol, Abuse, and Alcoholism. (2014).
Alcohol Alert.
Niaaa.nih.gov. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/

publications/aa58.htm.

Pedersen, E.R., LaBrie, J.W., & Lac, A. (2008). Assessment of perceived and actual alcohol norms in varying contexts: Exploring social

impact theory among college students.
Addictive Behaviors,
33, 552-564.

Peer Pressure [Def. 1]. (n.d.).
Merriam-Webster Online.
In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/

peer+pressure.

White, A. & Hingson, R. (2013). The burden of alcohol use: Excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among college

students.
Alcohol Consumption: Current Reviews, 35
(2), 201.
3
5
6
8
9
11
12
Demographic Variables

Age: Continuous
Gender: Nominal
Race/Ethnicity: Nominal
Independent Variable: Peer Pressure

Continuous
Calculated the summary score
Higher summary score = more receptive to peer pressure
Dependent Variable: Alcohol Consumption

Continuous
Calculated summary score
Higher summary score (>8)= indicate hazardous and harmful alcohol use
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Dr. Espinoza for her guidance throughout the duration of our research study. Additionally, we greatly appreciate the students who took the time to complete the survey.
Peer Pressure: Independent Variable
Methods: Measures
Social Context of Drinking Scales
30-item questionnaire, divided into 6 different contexts
Assesses how often individuals consume alcohol in various situations

Survey uses
Peer Acceptance
context
5-items
4-point scale (1 = Never, 4 = Frequently)
6
6 Beck, K., Arria, M., Caldeira, K., Vincent, K., O’Grady, K., Wish, E. (2008).
1 Peer Pressure. (n.d.). 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014).
Software: SPSS Version 20
Statistical Test: Pearson's R
Methods: Measures
Methods: Measures
CDC Disability and Health Data System
Age:
open-ended

Gender:
closed-ended

Ethnicity:
closed-ended
Peer Pressure:
social pressure by members of one's peer group to take a certain action, adopt certain values, or otherwise conform and order to be accepted.

Alcoholic drink:
intoxicating ingredient found in beer wine and liquor

Peer Influence on Alcohol Consumption
Background
2
1
10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). 11 Beck, K., Arria, M., Caldeira, K., Vincent, K., O’Grady, K., Wish, E. (2008).
10
Alcohol Consumption: Dependent Variable
11 Huchting, K., Lac, A., & LaBrie, J.W. (2008). 12 White, A. & Hingson, R. (2013). 13 National Institute on Alcohol, Abuse, and Alcoholism. (2014).
Why conduct research on college students and alcohol?
Based on our results...

Disprove research that college students are more inclined to drinking alcohol from peer pressure
The Pearson's correlation test revealed that Peer Pressure only has a very
weak positive correlation
with Alcohol Consumption.
p-value = .059 --> between .05 and .10
Trend toward significance: possibly due to small sample size

Refute Theory of Planned Behavior

Disprove the statistic that 50% of college students consume alcohol through binge drinking
About 77% of participants received a score of 7 or lower on the AUDIT
3
Recommendations
Larger sample that is more representative of the population
Usage of alcohol behavior journals
11
Software: SPSS version 20
To Health Educators:
More awareness towards alcohol use and consequences on campus and in classrooms
Be aware of signs and symptoms of student behavior
To Public Health Interventions:
For Future Studies:
Emphasize alcoholic behavior causes and effects
Apply behavioral modification techniques
Establish appropriate treatment
Provide supportive care
Hypothesis
It is hypothesized that there will be a positive correlation between peer pressure and alcohol consumption.
Demographic Variables
4
7
12
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