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TV program scientific concept

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niki c

on 11 February 2015

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Transcript of TV program scientific concept

Thank You!
I LIKE TO MOVE IT, MOVE IT!
If movements are under conscious control, why can't our thoughts move our bodies when paralyzed?
Nerves
The long, tough strands of nervous tissue are called nerves

They carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord ( the central nervous system)

Nerves are made up of
neurons
TV program scientific concept
analysis

BLG 599 Biology Facts in Pop Media Sci-Fiction
Grey's Anatomy
Introducing the Science
Season 10 Episode 6
"Map of you"
Brain Mapping
A demonstration of how the brain works to move the body!
THEY CAN NOW!
The portion of the brain called the motor cortex sends signals to the appropriate muscles through nerves by conscious control (Hoyle, 2013).
Why do nerves stop working?
Body attacking disorders, pressure on nerves, decreased blood flow to nerves, inflammation, diseases, and accidents. Polyneuropathy is a process that damages nerve cells, fibers, and coverings body wide (Campellone, 2014).
How does the body move?
The Grey's Anatomy episode used a brain-implantable prosthetic system to mimic nerves and create hand movements on a monitor.
A real life case is recently shown by 23-year-old Ian Burkhart who became the first patient to move his hand using the power of thought after a microchip was inserted into his brain (Prince, 2014).
This process is called a neural bypass
Science in the episode
There is a demonstration of a brain programing feature that allows a quadriplegic named Mickey to make hand movements on a simulated hand on a monitor by thinking about them. Despite the break through, there is a lack of brain activity on the monitor, which turns out to be a tumor on Mickey's brain (IMDb,2013).
Ian Burkhart moves hand
References:
Prince, R. (2014, June 25). 'Science fiction come true': Paralyzed man moves arm with his thoughts using microchip in his brain. Retrieved February 9, 2015, from http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/06/25/science-fiction-come-true-paralyzed-man-moves-arm-with-his-thoughts-using-microchip-in-his-brain/#__federated=1
Servick, K. (2012, November 18). A Leap Forward in Brain-Controlled Computer Cursors. Retrieved February 9, 2015, from http://engineering.stanford.edu/research-profile/leap-forward-brain-controlled-computer-cursors
Hoyle, G. (2013, August 16). How Do Muscles Move the Body's Skeleton? Retrieved February 9, 2015, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/360243-how-do-muscles-move-the-bodys-skeleton/
Campellone, J. (2014, December 10). Sensorimotor polyneuropathy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 9, 2015, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000750.htm
Grey's Anatomy Synopsis. (2013, January 1). Retrieved February 9, 2015, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3172730/synopsis?ref_=ttpl_pl_syn
Heartwarming Video Of Paralysed Man Moving Hand With Brain Microchip. [YouTube] (2014, June 24). Retrieved February 9, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avb2Tm5yRg.
Heartwarming Video Of Paralysed Man Moving Hand With Brain Microchip. [YouTube] (2014, June 24). Retrieved February 9, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avb2Tm5yRg.
Nerve cells
Used in the transmitting of information. This is done through electrical signaling.
Most neurons have:
A Cell body
Soma: The center of the cell which contains the nucleus.
Dendrites: Attached to the cell body and projects outward. They are responsible for sending impulses to the cell body.
Axon: A long projection attached to the cell body. Through the axon electrical impulses are sent away from the cell body.
Neurons
Neurons
Sensory Neurons
: Receive information through our senses about the outside world.
Motor Neurons
: Receive impulses from our muscles, which cause the muscles to contract (i.e running). This is done through the Central Nervous System.
Inter Neurons
: Normally found in the brain, they connect and communicate with each other.
Neurons connect to each other using a
synapse
. The synapse acts like a passageway between cells and allows signals to be transmitted.
There are 3 types of neurons
Nervous System
The nervous system is broken down in to the
Central Nervous System
(CNS)
and the
Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS)

The brain and the spinal cord make up the
CNS.
Components of the nervous system that are not part of the CNS are a part of the PNS.
The brain processes information to and from the spinal cord. From there appropriate action takes place.
The Brain
The brain has 4 main parts
The Cerebrum
The Cerebellum
The Diencephalon
The Brain Stem
The Cerebrum makes up a large portion of the brain and is divided into left and right hemispheres.
These hemispheres control the left and right side of the body.
The hemispheres contain the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and the temporal lobe. Each corresponds to different functions within the body .
Why is this important?
It's important to understand how the brain and nerves function so there can be continued research in areas such as brain and nerve damage. With further research we can improve processes that help the brain function even if there is nerve damage.
References:
Freeman,S.,Harrington,M.,&Sharp,J.(2011). Biological Science (Canadian Edition ed.).Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Pearson Canada Inc.

Neurons or nerve cells-Structure function and types of neurons| Human Anatomy| 3D Biology.[YouTube]( 2013, April 27). Retrieved February 9,2015, from
http:www.youtube.com/watch?v=cUGuWh2UeMk

Central and peripheral nervous systems. [Google Images] Retrieved February 9, 2015 from http://www.humanillnesses.com/images/hdc_0000_0001_0_img0007.jpg
Neural Bypass
Reconnects the brain to muscle by rerouting signals around the damaged nerves
Doctors use a procedure called
Neurobridge
, which works as a neural bypass and is used to reroute brain signals, using a brain implanted chip, a brain computer interface, and a sleeve that transmits electrical signals to the patient's forearm and hand (Dickerson, 2014).
This benefits society by furthering scientific advancements that can change the lives of many people. Researchers say that eventually the technology could be used to treat kinds of paralysis, like those caused from stroke or traumatic brain injury (Dickerson, 2014). By starting off with just a hand movement, one day a neural bypass will make an even greater movement for society.
AVM Tumors
A doctor from Ohio told Live Science, "I think we've demonstrated this is another milestone in the evolution of human-machine interface technology," (Dickerson, 2014).
For the system to work, surgeons would place the Neurobridge computer chip in the motor cortex. The chip reads the brain signals and sends them to a computer that records them as signals that muscles can pick up. The computer then sends those signals to the sleeve covered with about 200 electrodes, which stimulate the muscles and make them move (Dickerson, 2014).
AVM stands for Arteriovenous Malformation
A tangle of abnormal and poorly formed blood vessels (arteries and veins), which have a higher rate of bleeding than normal vessels.
Brain AVMS are the hugest concern

"Dural avms" - AVMs that occur in the coverings of the brain.
The episode we watched primarily focuses on the Brain AVM of a patient that is requesting for treatment.
The cause of AVMs is unknown
May have been present since birth-- due to abnormal development of blood vessels in utero
However, dural AVMs are an acquired disorder that can occur following an injury
Cause of AVM??
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avb2Tm5yRg.
Needs Treatment !
Treatment is needed to prevent internal bleeding from the AVM Tumor
Can cause disability or certain death
Risk of bleeding is 4% per year - 4 of every 100 people with an AVM will have hemorrhage during one year!
Create a variety of symptoms (discussed earlier)
Procedure involves:

Injection of glue into the AVM (rapidly hardens while being injected)
Small catheter navigates through blood vessels of the AVM
A single AVM may be embolized several times until satisfactory results are accomplished (stages: weeks to months)
Treatment- Embolization Glue
Dickerson, K. (2014, June 24). 'Neural Bypass' Reconnects Brain to Muscles in Paralyzed Man. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from http://www.livescience.com/46501-neurobridge-moves-paralyzed-muscles.html
Typically discovered between the ages of 20-40.
Rare and occur less than 1% of the entire pop
Treatment will help reduce these problems and symptoms.
SYMPTOMS
Depends on the location and size of the AVM.
SEIZURES:
may develop due to hyperactivity, and abnormal electrical activity
HEADACHES:
can be caused by high blood flow, actual migraines, and severe headaches will be due to internal bleeding.
STROKE-LIKE SYMPTOMS
: numbness and tingling, problems with vision, hearing, balance, memory, and personality changes. Due to depriving the nearby brain tissue of oxygen & nutrients.
BLEEDING
Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM). (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from http://brainavm.oci.utoronto.ca/malformations/brain_avm_index.htm
Embolotherapy or Endovascular Therapy
Embolization is useful for reducing blood flow through the AVM before surgery
No open surgical procedure
Depends on the intensity and size of the AVM, and the suitable the AVM is for embolizaton, the higher the cure rate.
Normal cure rate is 20%
Embolization Glue
Presented by:
Ivan Chau
Niki Consiglio
Julie Huynh
Victoria Molinaro
Advantages
Useful in making AVM smaller in size in order to be suitable for radiation treatment
Reduces blood flow through the AVM, making it easier for surgeon to remove AVM
Embolization Glue
Disadvantages
Only done if AVM made up of vessels that can be reached with catheters
Useful to reduce blood flow through AVM before surgery, making it easier to remove the AVM
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