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Transcript of Akkadian Empire
Empire - - The Akkadian Empire was an empire centered in the city of Akkad - United all the indigenous Akkadian speaking Semites and the
Sumerian speakers under one rule. - Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and
22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon
of Akkad. Akkadian's Rise - Conquered the Sumerians in 2331 BCE at the city of Akkad. Emergence of a Centralized Government - Around 2300 BCE, Sargon had already conquered much of lower Mesopotamia, with plans to conquer the north and the west. - After successfully capturing all ends of Mesopotamia, Sargon assured his power by appointing Semitic troops and fellow-Semites as high administrative officials. - Sargon could then build his capital , Agade, from the land of Akkad, and came Akkadian which was the semitic language. -Akkadian kings had absolute power, and were often passed down hereditary. -Akkadian rulers named themselves apart of the Lord of the four quarters and were elevated to the divine status. -Sargon would later develop some equality amongst himself, the royal court, and the high class of priest to establish a centralized government - With this wealth, Sargon spawned a large number of bureaucrats and administrators, and in the process, created the first bureaucratic organization. - With the most important decisions being made by state officials, rather than elected representatives, the Akkadian civilization was able to run more efficient than the Sumerian civilization, but were still very similar to the Sumerians. - Akkad's economy was heavily depended on agriculture, which made the empire thrive. Agricultural
Intensification The entire population of Akkad was dependent on the agricultural systems of the region. The regions were mainly divided into three
categories: 1 2 3 Intensively Cultivated Gardens Often laid within the boundaries of the settlement
on the banks of the water courses. example: Wild Rice Irrigated Fields Line crops in a band, parallel to the waterways and
producing the bulk of the stable crops. example: Corn Land furthest from the water Used for grazing, collecting fuel,
hunting and occasionally for catch crops when conditions were favorable. Specialization in Occupation - An early specialized occupation were brewers, who were often woman. Brewing required traditional knowledge, and much like today, each brewer had their own distinctive taste - Akkadians were expert craftspeople at sculpture with stone. One of the most well know works is the Victory Stele, which shows one of Sargon's descendants, Naram-Sin's, military victories. - Another extremely specialized skill was in metallurgy. They experimented by alloying copper, creating what we know today as bronze. - By far the most important occupation was the weavers and of textiles. This is because weaving was hereditary, meaning not only could they spin, weave, and dye, they were each apart of a guild-like group. Lower Class Mid-Class Upper Class Class Structure Much like any other civilization, the Akkadians had three classes on their societal hierarchy: Upper class:The Kings and Queens, Nobles, and rulers
Middle class: The regular citizen with jobs(such as teachers)
Lower Class: The slaves and prisoners. 1 2 3 -Their designation came from preforming an advance job as warriors established, both noble and ruler soon became hereditary. -Once the ruling class was -Most powerful class in Akkad -Can purchase slaves with ease -Commonly filled with teachers, labors, and merchants. if needed -Could purchase slaves -Had to obey the upper classes rule. - Most common class in the Akkadian empire -Had to obey both Upper and middle class - Had no rights as a citizen Merchants and Trade -Much like the Sumerians, the Akkadians trade was constructed of raw materials such as onyx, amber and shells. - -Manufactured goods became more complex, such as ivory carvings, rare dyes and precious jewelry. -This would establish the up rise of shops and markets, along with currency. Also, this would lead to long distance trading from civilization to civilization. -The Akkadians formed control over Anatolian elites, the control of tribute, and currency production during an era of military growth, trading, and primal entrepreneurs. -Most of trades made during this era were on water or land, and often included Grain and Cloth, which were the most produced and needed item. -Most water trades were made between the Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea while land trades were made on caravans. Science Writing / Literature The Exaltation of Inana Enheduanna
(2285 BCE - 2250 BCE) - The Akkadians are the first civilization to have the first collection of astronomical observations. -The Akkadians also created the first terrestrial omens and was recorded in a library established by Sargon. -The Akkadians developed the Sumerians Cuneiform into more deeper, richer writings. - The most well known poet of the Akkadians is Sargon's daughter, Enhenduanna. - She is the first poet in history to be recorded with a name. - She developed common themes in literature that are still applied to modern literature.
- Also began raising the issue of female literacy by: Enheduanna - First poem in history to be written from a personal point of view. - Deals with the most common theme in literature; Mankind's struggle to become more/less like God - The poem is a personal hymn about 154 lines in total. State Religion - The Akkadians heavily borrowed their religion from the Sumerians - The term Sumero-Akkadian is used to describe the religion, since it's a unity of both. - The Sumerian Triad (An, Enlil and Enki) was one of the many minor shifts the Akkadians made to the religion. An = Anu - God of heaven; played a much bigger role in Akkadian religion than Sumerian Enlil = Bel - God of order and destiny; the change in name was meant to an elevation for him, not a process of re-naming. Enki = Ea - The great force and power, being the creator god; It was because of the Akkadians that his named changed, and that it spread forward to the Babylonian and Assyrian religion. Benefits of a river The Tigris River The Euphrates River Rivers - The river went through major parts of the Akkadian empire such as Iraq, and the capital of Baghdad. - It runs about 1,418 km
and eventually meets up
with the Euphrates - River that passes through much of Akkadian empire, and covers a similar to the Tigris, except the Euphrates starts in Syria, rather than Turkey. - It runs about 2,735 km, and
eventually meets up with the
Tigris river - The Akkadian empire, along with the rest of the early civilizations, developed along river valleys - Source of water, fertile soil, easy & faster transportation for trading and communication, and a thriving food source between land and water animals. - This is what allowed the first civilizations to grow and flourish. - Within 180 years, the Empire had fallen into famine and drought, and this caused little to no military due to the lack of nutrition across the empire. - Soon after the Akkadian Empire died off, the Babylonians began to thrive and it is when they became in full power of what was once the Akkadian Empire. Works Cited Kjeilen, Tore. "Akkad." looklex.com. (italicized) N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. Schomp, Virginia. "People of the Ancient World Series" Ancient Mesopotamia: The Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians.
reprint. Canada: Paw Prints, 2008, 2004. 32-39. Print. Oates, Joan. "Trade and power in the fifth and fourth millennia BC: New evidence from northern Mesopotamia." 'World Archaeology' 24.3
(1993): 403-422. Hawkes, Jacquetta. The First Great Civilizations . 1st ed. Vancouver: MW Books, 1973. Print. Steele, Philip. Eyewitness Mesopotamia. Chicago: DK Publishing, Inc., Print.
"Akkadian Empire." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc, 16 02 2013.
Web. 19 Feb 2013.