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AH&R: 2010-2011

The summary of the First Semester!
by

Patrick Allegra

on 23 June 2011

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Transcript of AH&R: 2010-2011

The Vedic Age The Development of the Aryan Civilization The Epic Literature of Aryan Life The emergence into India Entered through Kyber and Bolan Passes between 2000 -1500 BC Overan, fought, but also blended Aryan and Dravidian cultures Dravidians were the Indus Valley peoples Structured their society into ranked groups Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaisyas Sudras Caste System Mahabharata Ramayana Story of rival Aryan tribes fighting for contriol of the Ganges region One episode of the Mahabharata is fomous in the West: The Bhagavad- Gita Focuses on values and behavior Tells the story of Rama and his adventure to rescue his wife with the help of Hanuman, the monkey general Hinduism Buddhism The Basic Beliefs Brahman The Vedas Moksha "God is one, but wise people know it by many names." Everything is part of the unchanging, spiritual force called brahman Hindus worship a variety of Gods that give brahman
a concrete form: Originally passed down orally
then written in Sanskrit The four Vedas
Upanishads
Ramayana
Mahabharata
the Bhgavad Gita The Upanishads deal with the mystical elements of Hinduism Atman

Reincarnation

karma

dharma

ahmisa The caste system Notes for the Indus Valley Civilizations
&
The Religions of India What is it? Where did it spread? Look here Background Siddartha Gautama Life of priviledge Why is there suffering in the world? TheMain Principles The Four Noble Truths The Noble Eightfold Path The Middle Way Theravada Buddhism spread... Theravada Buddhism states that only the most dedicated seekers will achieve Nirvana Mahayana Buddhism also spread from Tibet... Mahayana Buddhism was more approachable for ordinary people who began to diefy the Buddha... Buddhism gradually split
into two distinct sects It's influence declined in India
since Hinduism simply absorbed it
into its existing pantheon. While it owes its roots to Hinduism,
Buddhism is radically different
in three main ways: Tied to Hindu religious beliefs Each caste was a different species of being
affected by the law of Karma The belief that upward mobilty occured after death
insured social order during life. 1. No extremes


2. No caste


3. No God(s) -No physical pain to achieve union with the cosmos -Must devote oneself to the "middle way" -achieving moksha can be achieved in a lifetime -Anyone can do it -It's self explanatory isn't it? ...to Korea & Japan ...to Southeast Asia & Sri Lanka ...in Tibet Unit one: How do we know what we know? So....my first question is "where did humans originate?" There are two answers that we'll
study in this unit: Answer #1: The religious answer Answer #2: The scientific answer The creation story Enuma Elish Rig Veda Genesis The Silmarillion 2001:A Space Odyssey Unit 2: What is the neolithic revolution and why is it so revolutionary? Darwin Hominids Culture 1. Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace formulated the modern theory of biological evolution of the species. Similar species were related to one another NOT created separately. demonstrated the method how small differences were transmitted from generation to generation. 2. Darwin published his finding in 1859. The books was called "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" Challenged humakind's conception of life on Earth. Stated that the pressure for an organism to compete, survice, and reproduce created a "natural selection" or Survival of the fittest" 3. In 1871, Darwin publiushed his book :The Descent of Man" and extended his argument to the evolution of Humans Thus, the search for the
"Missing Link" began. In 1856, workers found bones in the Neander Valley in Germany. In 1863, Thomas Henry Huxley argued that these fossils were the "Missing Link"
The bones were called Homo Neanderthalensis But they were not the "missing link" as dicoveries were made from Indonesia to Africa. Ardipithecus Ramidus

Australopithecus Afarensis

Homo Habilis

Homo Erectus

Homo Neanderthalensis

Homo Sapiens Discovered in 1994, it is the oldest complete fossil yet found.
It pushes the date of a common ancestor back to 10 million ya.
It was bipedal & disproves the "shrinking forrest theory" Homo Habilis apparently eveolved while Australopithecus Robustus & Australopithecus Afarensis died out. Why? AH&R: 2010-2011 Multiple Gods Marduk slays the rebel leader Humans grow from blood of slain gods Violent There are two versions Who cares? Dismembered giant Purusha Reinforces the caste system One, all powerful God created everything Humans are in his image Fiction One, all powerful God created the word and first beings The first beings (Ainur) created humans A film & a book Humans evolved from apes The Monolith triggered the evolution complex social structure

job specialization

child care

language

art The Neolithic revolution Mesopotamia Nile valley Harappan it means Agriculture! the basic flow chart is: Nomadic to agricultural village to towns to cities to city sate to empire. video on the neolithic revolution
(10 min) The progress from nomadic to agricultural village to cities creates another revolution: The urban revolution The Epic of Gilgamesh is a critique of this new way of life try this link:
http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/ try this link:
http://www.harappa.com/har/har0.html The oldest civilization (3300 BCE)

Sets the pattern for the development of civilization other civilizations Agriculture + people= city

city+ walls= security

security+ lost of people = creativity

creativity= the tenents of civilization government Trade Trade leads to social hierarchy, writing.

writing leads to laws and religion differed from Mesopotamia How? can't decipher writing so not much is know
for certain. Can infer though. Examples?
Full transcript