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Transcript of Behaviorism
JOHN B WATSON
The concept of reinforcement is unnecessary
Try to explain learning in term of the ancient principles of contiguity and frequency
Law of frequency
Law of contiguity
Mind & Body
JOHN B. WATSON
B. F. SKINNER
Able to understand the emergence of Behaviorism
Able to identify the prominent figures of Behaviorism
Able to recognize the theories introduced by the figures
Able to know the Islamic Views on Behaviorism
Able to know the history of Behaviorism from Islamic Perspectives
The Founder of Behaviorism
What is Behaviorism
behaviorism tends to explain learning in terms of observable behavior, generally avoiding reference to mental events and entities.
"to discover the lawful relationship between environment events and behaviors" (Gredler, 1997).
to behaviorism, learning is a behavioral change.
Born on 14 September 1849
In town Ryazan Russia
Has medical degree
Later study physiology in Germany
Appointed as professor of physiology at St. Petersburg’s Military Medical Academy
Before psychology he spent studying the digestive system
strong emphasis on association
and analysis on nurture over nature in determining human and animal behavior.
explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations
and the effects of reinforcer upon them entirely
excluding 'mental' terms like desires and goals
“complete rejection of introspection and of any explanation of behavior based on mentalism”
Consciousness could not cause behavior
Became less interested in physiology and more interested in correlating stimuli and response
Four types of behavior:
Explicit learned behavior
Implicit learned behavior
Explicit unlearned behavior
Implicit unlearned behavior
Experiment in 1920 on 11 month-old infant named Albert
Originally Albert don’t seem fear white rat
In the experiment as Albert reached for the rat a steal bar behind him was struck with hammer
The loud unexpected noise cause Albert to jump and fall forward
After several times Albert now frightened of ratThe fear also generalized to other furry objects
Peter & Rabbit
A three year old boy named Peter who intensely fear of white rats, rabbits etc.
Watson and Jones first tried showing Peter other children playing with the object he was fear
Later they decide to do counter conditioning on Peter
One day while Peter was eating his lunch, a rabbit in wire cage was displayed far enough so that don’t disturbed Peter
Each day the rabbit is moved closer to Peter
Until Peter able to eat with one hand and play with the rabbit with other hand
Example of behavior therapy
Descartes, William James
The mind can influence the body and vise versa
The mind and body interact
mental and bodily event are parallel with no interaction between them
Bodily events cause mental events but mental events cannot cause bodily events
Physical monism (materialism)
Involved rejecting the existence of mental event (conscious) altogether
Research On Digestion
Found little could be learned from dead or traumatized animal
He know patient who suffered a severe gunshot
Pavlov come out with gastric fistula (channel)
FOUR Types of VIEWS
Discovery on CONDITIONED REFLEX
Discover during work on digestion
The secretion of gastric juices in response to such substances as meat powder
Object or event associated with meat powder also caused stomach secretions
Pavlov refer this this response as conditional because it depend on something else
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR)
Bandura was initially influenced by Robert Sears' work on familial antecedents of social behaviour and identificatory learning.
He directed his initial research to the role of social modelling in human motivations, thought, and action.
Their joint efforts illustrated the critical role of modeling in human behavior and led to a program of research into the determinants and mechanisms of observational learning.
Skinner was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania.
He attended Hamilton College in New York with the intention of becoming a writer.
He wrote for the school paper, but as an atheist, he was critical of the religious school he attended.
He also attended Harvard University after receiving his B.A. in English literature in 1926.
After graduation, he spent a year at his parents' home.
He tried to become a writer in Greenwich Village.
His encounter with John B. Watson's Behaviorism led him into graduate study in psychology and to the development of his own operant behaviorism.
Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect.
Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect.
Reinforcement-->behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (strengthened).
Behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (weakened).
THREE TYPES OF RESPONSES
responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.
Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative
Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
Bandura was born in Mundare, in Alberta.
As the youngest child, and only son, in a family of six.
The limitations of education in a remote town such as this caused Bandura to become independent and self-motivated in terms of learning, and these primarily developed traits proved very helpful in his lengthy career.
Bandura arrived in the US in 1949 and naturalized in 1956. He is married to Virginia Varns and has two daughters, Carol and Mary.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
learning new behaviors and for achieving behavioral change in institutionalized settings.
Children and adults analyze their learning by imitating behaviors of others, observing others.
Bobo Doll Experiment.
Identified aggression in children
The theory he expanded from social learning theory soon became known as social cognitive theory.
THE ACCEPTANCE & REJECTION from ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE
BEHAVIORISM IN ISLAM
Islam insisted that men is determined by their level of iman
Soul plays important role in development of men’s behavior.
E.G: dhizkir, recitation of quran, prayer
Concept of Fitrah by prophet (SAW)
Behaviorism views men’s behavior determined by stimulus-responses.
They also believe that men’s behavior resulted of reinforcement and punishment.
Behaviorist believes modelling is most appropriate to concept of human learning.
Islam agreed with the concept of stimulus-responses
The application is not contradict with Islamic aqidah
Men as machine that respond to conditioning
Men are not responsible for own action
Behavior is manipulative
Man without soul and mind can be animal. It is true many people behavior can be conditioned reflex according to this theory. If it is not for God and religion most of us would be this way.
Islam did not reject the concept of behaviorism TOTALLY
Islam accept the application of the behaviorism
Only the principles of behaviorism MUST be rejected
The existence of soul and its role MUST be included in behaviorism for Muslims.
BEHAVIORIST IN ISLAMIC VIEWS
To reiterate behaviorism seeks to identify observable, measurable laws that could explain all of human behavior.
From a general Islamic perspective, classical conditioning can be an atheistic mazhab in
terms of `aqidah.
Watson for instance rejected the concept of religion, hereafter, moral and love as the axis
of ‘Aqidah or creed.
Operant conditioning in Islamic View
Ibn Sina believes that the association between unconditioned and neutral stimulus must be kept in memory before it can become a conditioned stimulus (classical conditioning).
how seeing food (without even eating it) is pleasurable and seeing sticks (without even been beaten by it) is painful
Ibn Sina also suggested that a person can feel disgusted
(a conditioned response) with yellow honey (a conditioned stimulus) if
he associates its color with yellow bile (neutral stimulus).
Al-Ghazali went a step further by giving example of what is now known as Pavlovian “stimulus generalisation” when he observed that a person who was bitten by a snake is momentarily phobic of a colourful rope.
He also went another step further, much earlier than Pavlov, by using salivation as his example.
Al-Ghazali said that observing a person eating an acidic fruit, or even imagining such scene, can make the observer (or the imaginer) salivates.
At that time, not only it is an advanced theory, it is also add to the current deficient theory by introducing the cognitive aspect of learning such as imagination.
From a general Islamic perspective, operant conditioning also can be an atheistic mazhab in terms of `aqidah.
Skinner, as quoted by Badri (1979), said that behaviour we called right or wrong (which Muslims believe as halal and haram) are nothing more than unforeseen event of responses towards immediate and tangible rewards and punishments, and have nothing to do with the concepts of good and bad.
In other words, our akhlaq, our `ibadah, and even our tawhid are just illusions.
The major differences between operant conditioning and Islamic concepts of rewards and punishment are, in Islam, the stimuli are intangible and delayed (as late as after death or even after Judgement Day).
Not only cognitive factor plays a role here, but also the soul factor, i.e. the level of iman, can influence whether Islamic stimuli are rewarding or punishing enough.
Contemporary Western psychology advocates that punishment is less effective than reinforcement (Ormrod, 2001).
This concept is not alien in Islam :
There is a da`wah principle that al-targhib (making people feel good) should be prioritised before al-tarhib (making people feel fear) when promoting Islam (Abdul Aziz, 1997) which is in line with psychological concept to prioritise reinforcement over punishment.
Even when punishments are practiced in Islamic tradition, they are usually administered to those who really understand his or her wrongdoings.
beating the children who do not perform prayer is only allowed when they are ten years old, only after educating them about the importance of prayer three years before that (based on a hadith narrated by Ahmad).
In other words, understanding the reason of punishment is a pre-requisite before administering it which is similar to what Western psychology has said.
Contemporary operant conditioning theory of reinforcement cannot be applied to Muslims with high level of iman. For a Muslim, just by having faith that he or she will receive rewards, jannah (paradise), or Allah pleasure can be a positive reinforcer.
CONTRIBUTIONS in OPERANT CONDITIONING
It was illustrated in various narrations. The prophet, companions, and successor already applied hundred years back.
Al-ghazali said the concept of jannah (paradise) and nar (hell-fire) is based on rewards and punishment principle. This is because, it is in human nature to try to seek pleasant feelings and avoid unpleasant stimuli.
1. Identified two goal of psychology
propose by Watson?
2. What Watson view on mind and body?
3. List four key concepts in classical conditioning?
1. Names three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.
2. Name two theories that came from Albert Bandura?
1. Who are the Muslim scholars that pioneered the classical conditioning?
2. What are the views of Islam on classical and operant conditioning?
3. What are the roles of Muslims in using the conditioning to promote Islam?