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Movements of Earth

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Mariya Joan

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of Movements of Earth

Earth, Moon, and Sun Interactions
~ The Earth's rotation, revolution, and axis tilt are very important elements of Earth
Earth's Revolution
~ Earth travels around the Sun once every 365.242199 days, which is also why we have leap years
Summer Solstice
~ The summer solstice is the longest day of the year and is around the date of June 21 (in the Northern Hemisphere)
Lunar Eclipse
~ A lunar eclipse is an overshadowing of the Moon that occurs when the Earth lies directly between the Moon and Sun
~ They create day and night, seasons, and help sustain the organisms on Earth
The Earth's Rotation and Axis Tilt
~ The Earth rotates on it's axis from east to west (counter-clockwise), if looking down at the North Pole
~It takes the Earth 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds to complete a full rotation, which is why we have a 24 hour day
~ The Earth spins on an axis that is tilted 23.5 degrees from the flat plane of Earth's orbit
~Earth's axis is the imaginary line straight through the center of Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole
~ The Earth's rotation and axis tilt causes the periods of time called night and day
~As the Earth rotates, some places of the world face towards the sun causing day time and when Earth rotates more, that part of the world will be facing away from the sun, causing night time
~Also, by the way Earth is tilted, some areas of the world are more exposed to the Sun's light than others
The Earth's rotation and axis tilt causing day and night
~Earth orbits around the sun at a speed of approximately 108,000 km/h
~ Earth's revolution around the Sun is very important as it causes the world to experience seasons
~ Earth experiences four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall/autumn
~ Seasons are created because the Earth is tilted, therefore different parts of the world are exposed to different amounts of the Sun's heat energy
~ For summer in the Northern Hemisphere, the Earth's position is tilting toward the Sun where it is receiving the Sun's rays directly
~ At the same time, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere. The North end of Earth is tilting toward the Sun, meaning that the South end is tilting away from the Sun's rays causing them to hit at an angle not so concentrated
~ At the equator, the Sun's rays strike the surface of Earth directly all year long
~ The equator is the imaginary line around the middle of Earth
~ The summer solstice is the point in earth's orbit around the Sun when the Sun's path across the sky is the highest
Winter Solstice
~ The winter solstice is the shortest day of the year and is around the date of December 21 (in the Northern Hemisphere)
~ The winter solstice is the point in the Earth's orbit around the Sun when the Sun's path is low, closer to the horizon
The Sun's path in a summer and winter solstice
Solar Eclipse
~ An eclipse is the total or partial overshadowing of one celestial body by another
~ There are two parts to an eclipse shadow
~There is the umbra, the central dark area, and the penumbra, the partial shadow area
~ It is dangerous to look directly at the Sun during an eclipse as it can permanently damage your eyes
~ There are also different types of eclipses
~A solar eclipse is an overshadowing of Earth that occurs when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth, making the Moon block the Sun's light
Diagram of solar eclipse
~ It can only occur during full moon phase
~ The moon usually disappears for a moment and then reappears having a red tint because of the indirect sunlight being refracted through the atmosphere
~ The shorter wavelengths, such as blue and violet, are scattered away, but since red has the longest wave lengths they are able to reach the Moon's surface after being refracted
~ A lunar eclipse doesn't last very long and total lunar eclipses are quite rare
Diagram of a lunar eclipse
Types of Solar Eclipses
~ There are three different types of solar eclipses: total, partial, and annular
~ A total solar eclipse occurs when the moon completely covers the sun
~ A partial solar eclipse occurs when only part of the Moon covers the Sun
~ An annular eclipse occurs when the Moon appears smaller than the Sun and a bright ring of sunlight remains visible during the eclipse.
Types of Lunar Eclipses
~ There are three types of lunar eclipses: penumbral, partial, and total
~ A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon travels through the penumbra of Earth's shadow and the moon slightly darkens
~ A partial lunar eclipse occurs when only part of the Moon is blocked by the Earth’s umbra.
~ A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth's umbra blocks the entire Moon's surface and often causes a red glow upon the Moon
~ The Earth interacts with the Moon and Sun to create these changes and causes such things as solstices and eclipses as well
~ The dates for the summer and winter solstices are opposite in the Southern Hemisphere
~ To watch an eclipse, it is recommended to wear special glasses that filter the intense light so that it isn't as concentrated
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