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Russian Women in the 1800s
Transcript of Russian Women in the 1800s
Their clothing often resembled or came from the styles in Paris.
Transparent white was the color most notable in women's fashion of the day--the white was to imply a woman's purity while revealing ones body.
A stylized high waistline was a Neo-Classical fashion--more playful
The loose fitting dresses were often referred to as a chemise During the 1840s women’s dress began to hide the female form and become increasingly heavy.
Petticoats, corsets, and metal skirts became increasingly popular and expected.
The waistline dropped--more restricting. Peasant Women Peasant women’s dress in Russia was practical as women of the time endured hard labor and their dress must accommodate their need to work.
Often included a head covering and apron Russian Women's Occupations Factory workers
Teachers In the early nineteenth century, upper class women were educated in art and music to a high standard, but they could not become professionals In the mid-19th century women of other classes were admitted to academies of art or music and began to write professionally, but only about decorative arts and crafts ('feminine' subjects)
If a woman's art or musical work was good, it would be described as "masculine" Education Secondary education was not available to women until the 1850s
High education was not available until the 1870s
Most education given to women up until this point was largely vocational, only contributing to women's role in the home Prostitution In the 19th century prostitution was legalized
Government-sanctioned brothels gave every prostitute yellow internal passports signifying their status
Government required that all prostitutes receive a weekly physical exam
There were 1,216 brothels in Russia by the end of the 19th century Women in rural areas carried a heavy work load equal of that to a man, working in the household, farmyard, and field. Marriage
The peasant woman's role as a wife and mother
was a hard one to carry as childbirth practices of the time were dangerous and unsanitary.
-Russia had the highest infant mortality rate in Europe at the time
Women owed their husbands "unlimited obedience"
Married women had to have "permission"from their husbands to work outside the home, get an education, or reside more than 15 miles from their husband's residence
A good wife was described as a woman who spoke little, worked hard, and put up with her husband. Domestic violence within the home and marriage Russian culture in the nineteenth century was known for excessive drunkenness resulting in aggressiveness and violence in the marriage.
Domestic violence was not only common but accepted in societal norms
It was said that a wedding tradition of the time was that a groom held a whip on his wedding day, symbolizing the treatment of his wife that was to come.
If a wife was disobedient to her husband, the court could order that she receive ten lashes
an account of a wife's punishment: villagers ‘witnessed a woman harnessed to a cart, running alongside the horse to the cheerful jeering of her husband and father-in-law who were driving, [she] was badly beaten and soon lost consciousness’
Cases of women escaping this abuse was rare
Children were also beat, continuing the culture of domestic violence in Russia Sources "Domestic Violence - Peasant Russia." Suite101.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://suite101.com/article/domestic_violence_peasant_russia-a38465>.
"Russia--Women--Culture." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://books.google.com/books?id=s-g2_mK1oicC>.
Google Images." Google Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2012. <http://images.google.com/>.
"Womenâs Rights in 19th CenturyÂ Russia." Southern Bluestocking. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://southernbluestocking.com/2012/02/05/womens-rights-in-19th-century-russia/> Property Rights Noble Russian women could hold property, which most European women did not have the privilege to do.
Many peasants of the early 19th century were living under the conditions of serfdom; therefore not only did the peasant women not own property, their husbands failed to as well. Although there were hardships and sexual dangers, such as pregnancy, a woman could earn an independent wage Women during this period fought for control of their bodies and lives, the right to live apart from their husbands and earn their own living, and to be considered equal to men
For this very reason women were a huge part of the Russian Revolution Other Rights Noblewomen could not vote, hold their own passports, or attend high schools or universities (secondary school available in 1850s) In the context of the old family based mode of production, - although they were definitely oppressed by men - women were not conscious of the limits imposed on their individual development and even less of the limits imposed on their fundamental social rights---women were only aware of the "family nucleus"
limitation of women's freedom came when the capitalist mode of production asserts itself
manufacturing machines completely undermine women's household production and allow working class women to seek a role outside their home Activism Among Russian Women the demands for women's emancipation initially emerged within the bourgeois feminist movement, which had greater financial and cultural resources
the women of the upper classes tended to see the struggle for civil rights as a way of defending their own social status--this is not to the benefit of the working class women
this class distinction really became prominent in the fight for universal suffrage during the early 20th century
The real strength behind the women's movement came from the large volume of working class women First and foremost, every woman would support the social class to which she belonged
Bourgeois women would support anti-trade union laws, despite these laws being favorable to her "sisters" of the working class
women in the working class were more about individual rights than of money Women's Participation in Activist Groups Tchaikovsky Circle "the first in Russia in which women played an active and independent role"
Founded in 1870 by both male and female students
Many of the women came from groups that banned male participation---men were seen as a threat to their autonomy
Social activist women followed same general path: the conquest of individual independence would push them to abandon feminism, in its more limited [bourgeois] form-->leads them to the radicalism of the Tchaikovsky group and other similar initiatives, where both sexes were united in socialist propaganda and agitation "Trail of the 50" Also "The Trial of the Moscow Women"
ignited wide labor movement with a series of spontaneous strikes, especially of female textile workers
Result: banned women and children from working night shift