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Intro to Relative Clauses

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by

Ashlea Miyauchi

on 10 July 2013

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Transcript of Intro to Relative Clauses

Yukata are robes made of cotton. They look like kimono, but they are worn in the summer. The girls wearing yukata are dancing in a summer festival called O-bon.

.

.

.

.

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I took this picture of my family in Japan. The older man is my father-in-law, Shigeru. The woman who is wearing pink is my mother-in-law, Matsuko. The boy who is sitting on her lap is Kay. The boy sitting in the middle is Sho. I'm the one taking the picture.
This is a picture.
I took this picture in Japan.
Combining Sentences
This is a picture
that
I took in Japan.
To combine two sentences:
-change the NOUN to a RELATIVE PRONOUN
-move the relative pronoun to the beginning
-move the description behind the NOUN in the main sentence

We had a picnic at the lake.
People visit the lake to see Mt. Fuji.
We had a picnic at
the lake

that people visit to see Mt. Fuji.
People visit
the lake

that we had a picnic at
to see Mt. Fuji.
What's a relative pronoun?
It's a marker that shows the beginning of the description.
who
usually the same as "which" but sometimes used for people in casual language
that
which
The
RELATIVE PRONOUN
replaces a
NOUN
. But a
noun can be a
[SUBJECT]
or
[OBJECT]
This city is in the mountains.
This city has about 60,000 people.
I lived in this city.。
Many people grow fruit, vegetables, or rice in this city.
[S]
[O]
I lived in this city which has about 60,000 people.
This city that I lived in has about 60,000 people.
Many people grow fruit, vegetables, or rice in
this city that is in the mountains.
This city which many people grow fruit,
vegetables, or rice in is in the mountains.
"In"
is still here! The
PREPOSITION
doesn't change; only the
NOUN
changes
.
So, the
RELATIVE PRONOUN
can be the
[SUBJECT]
or
[OBJECT]
of the main sentence or the description.
Sometimes, you don't need the
RELATIVE PRONOUN.

The description is called a
[RELATIVE CLAUSE]
or
[ADJECTIVE CLAUSE]
.

All clauses must have a
[SUBJECT]
, so if the
RELATIVE PRONOUN
is the
[SUBJECT]
, you must use it.
If the
RELATIVE PRONOUN
is the
[OBJECT]
, you don't have to use it.
Find another
RELATIVE CLAUSE
that you don't need.
Yes, but one more.
That's not a relative clause.... is it?
Yukata are robes. Yukata are made of cotton.
Yukata are robes
that
are made of cotton.
You can delete the RELATIVE PRONOUN and the BE-VERB if
- the RELATIVE PRONOUN is the [SUBJECT]
- it is together with the BE-VERB
- it makes a full cause
The women
who

are wearing yukata
are dancing for a festival
which

is called O-bon
.
This is helpful for
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
or
PASSIVE
sentences. So, you often start with the present participle (VERB-ing) or past participle (VERB-en).
Which is better?
Clarity vs. Length
I talked to some students going to ELI.
Do you mean they were walking downtown?
No, I mean they're students who are going to ELI this session.
This is a picture which was painted by Monet.
OR
This is a picture painted by Monet.
This one's short. I like this better!
What is easy for your reader to understand?
The
RELATIVE CLAUSE
is related to other sentence patterns ...
These are o-hina dolls shown on March 3rd .
Doll's Festival is a day
that

we celebrate girls on
.
Oh, good! If I use
where
or
when
,
it replaces the
noun
and the
preposition
, too!
In fact, I don't know
how to read many kanji
.
But, I know
what to do at the festivals
!
These are
my relatives!

Aren't relatives great?
We often use HOW TO + Verb, WHAT TO + Verb.
Sometimes, we use WHEN/WHERE/WHO TO + VERB.
Reducing the Relative Clause
My family,
who has lived in Yokohama for a long time
, has many old and beautiful treasures..
Doll's Festival is
when

we celebrate girls.
My family has many old and beautiful treasures.
This is extra information in the sentence, so we use commas to take it out.
Full transcript