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Intro to Relative Clauses
Transcript of Intro to Relative Clauses
I took this picture of my family in Japan. The older man is my father-in-law, Shigeru. The woman who is wearing pink is my mother-in-law, Matsuko. The boy who is sitting on her lap is Kay. The boy sitting in the middle is Sho. I'm the one taking the picture.
This is a picture.
I took this picture in Japan.
This is a picture
I took in Japan.
To combine two sentences:
-change the NOUN to a RELATIVE PRONOUN
-move the relative pronoun to the beginning
-move the description behind the NOUN in the main sentence
We had a picnic at the lake.
People visit the lake to see Mt. Fuji.
We had a picnic at
that people visit to see Mt. Fuji.
that we had a picnic at
to see Mt. Fuji.
What's a relative pronoun?
It's a marker that shows the beginning of the description.
usually the same as "which" but sometimes used for people in casual language
. But a
noun can be a
This city is in the mountains.
This city has about 60,000 people.
Ｉ ｌｉｖｅｄ ｉｎ ｔｈｉｓ ｃｉｔｙ.。
Many people grow fruit, vegetables, or rice in this city.
I lived in this city which has about 60,000 people.
This city that I lived in has about 60,000 people.
Many people grow fruit, vegetables, or rice in
this city that is in the mountains.
This city which many people grow fruit,
vegetables, or rice in is in the mountains.
is still here! The
doesn't change; only the
can be the
of the main sentence or the description.
Sometimes, you don't need the
The description is called a
All clauses must have a
, so if the
, you must use it.
, you don't have to use it.
that you don't need.
Yes, but one more.
That's not a relative clause.... is it?
Yukata are robes. Yukata are made of cotton.
Yukata are robes
are made of cotton.
You can delete the RELATIVE PRONOUN and the BE-VERB if
- the RELATIVE PRONOUN is the [SUBJECT]
- it is together with the BE-VERB
- it makes a full cause
are wearing yukata
are dancing for a festival
is called O-bon
This is helpful for
sentences. So, you often start with the present participle (VERB-ing) or past participle (VERB-en).
Which is better?
Clarity vs. Length
I talked to some students going to ELI.
Do you mean they were walking downtown?
No, I mean they're students who are going to ELI this session.
This is a picture which was painted by Monet.
This is a picture painted by Monet.
This one's short. I like this better!
What is easy for your reader to understand?
is related to other sentence patterns ...
These are o-hina dolls shown on March 3rd .
Doll's Festival is a day
we celebrate girls on
Oh, good! If I use
it replaces the
In fact, I don't know
how to read many kanji
But, I know
what to do at the festivals
Aren't relatives great?
We often use HOW TO + Verb, WHAT TO + Verb.
Sometimes, we use WHEN/WHERE/WHO TO + VERB.
Reducing the Relative Clause
who has lived in Yokohama for a long time
, has many old and beautiful treasures..
Doll's Festival is
we celebrate girls.
My family has many old and beautiful treasures.
This is extra information in the sentence, so we use commas to take it out.