What: How to calculate what % of the available sugars were extracted from the grain.

Malt Calculations

Why: In order to determine how much malt I should be adding to the mash.

How: Determine your desired starting plato, your final volume, what percentage of each grain you want to use, grain PPG, and Brewhouse Efficiency.

PPG: Points/Pound/Gallon

Equation: # grain = points / PPG / brew house efficiency

Equation: points = gallons * SG

Example : Brewing a 7 BBL batch of Dunkel with 50% Munich malt, 48% Vienna malt, and 2 % chocolate malt. Brewhouse Efficiency is 87% with a starting plato of 14.8

Solution: Get everything into SG units and Gallons

SG = 259 / (259-14.8)

SG units =1.060 - 1.000 * 1000

SG units = 60

Gallons = 7 BBLS * 31 gallons

Gallons = 217 gallons

Total = 217 gallons * 60 SG units

Total SG units = 13020

Munich Malt = 13020 * 50%

Munich Malt = 6510 points

Vienna Malt = 13020 * 48%

Vienna Malt = 6250 points

Chocolate Malt = 13020 * 2%

Chocolate Malt = 260 points

Conversions

Plato and Specific Gravity

Plato = A scale used to determine how much sugar is present in beer. Based on weight as a % of sucrose. 15 Plato means 15% of the weight of the solution is sucrose.

Specific Gravity = A density reading

P = 259 - (259/SG)

SG = 259 / (259 - Plato)

**Brewery Math**

**How to Hit Your Target**

**Water Additions**

Problem: I have an 8 BBL brewhouse with water that has 9 ppm calcium. I want to have 100 ppm and have a bucket of CaCL2 hexahydrate (18% calcium by weight). How many pounds should I add?

Why: To determine if you are leaving too many sugars behind.

How: Measured Points

Theoretical Points

Theoretical = Grain Points * Weight lbs

Measured = (Specific Gravity) - 1.000)) * 1000 * vol gals

Example Problem: 5 BBLs of 1.064 SG wort. Brewer used 265 pounds of grain at 40 ppg

Solution: 5 BBLS * 31 gallons/BBL = 155 gallons wort

(1.064) - 1.000)) * 1000 * 155 gallons

64 * 155 gallons =

9920 Measured Points

Theoretical = 40 ppg * 265

Theoretical =

10600 Theoretical Points

Brewhouse Efficency = 9920/10600

Brewhouse Efficency =

93.5 %

Class Problem:A brewer used 135 pounds of 2-row at 40 grain points, 30 pounds of caramel malt at 35 grain points, and 5 pounds of chocolate malt at 25 grain points. He brewed a 3 BBL batch and ended up with a final gravity of 1.058. What was his brewhouse efficency?

Solution: 40 grain points * 135 pounds = 5400

35 grain points * 30 pounds = 1050

25 pounds * 5 pounds = 125

5400 + 1050 + 125 = 6,575

(1.058 - 1.000) * 1000 = 58

58 * 3 * 31 = 5394

5,394/6,575 =

82%

BBLs, Kegs, Sixtel, Gallons, Liters

1 BBL = 31 gallons

1 BBL = 2 kegs (15.5 gallons)

1 BBL = 6 sixtels (5.2 gallons)

1 Keg = 15.5 gallons

1 Keg = 165 12oz Pours

1 gallon = 3.785 Liters

1 Liter = 1000 mL

1 mL = 1000 uL

Example = How many L are in 7 BBLs?

Ls = 7 BBL * (31 gallons/ 1 BBL) * (3.785 L / gallon)

= 821 Ls

Example : 15 degree Plato

SG = 259 / (259-15)

SG = 1.061

Problem : 12.2 degree Plato reading, what is the SG?

Solution

SG = 259 / (259-12.2)

= 259 / 246.8

= 1.049

**Conversions**

Brewhouse Efficency

Malt Calculations

Water Additions

IBU Calculations

Brewhouse Efficency

Malt Calculations

Water Additions

IBU Calculations

Use the points to determine grain in pounds

6510 points Munich

6250 points Vienna

260 points Chocolate Malt

Munich = 35 PPG

Vienna = 35 PPG

Chocolate = 28 PPG

Munich Pounds = 6510 points / 35 PPG / 87%

= 213 pounds

Vienna Pounds = 6250 points / 35 PPG / 87%

= 205 pounds

Chocolate Pounds = 260 points / 28 PPG / 87%

= 9 pounds

Why: Certain styles of beer are best produced with distinct water profiles. Some water profiles are unsuited to produce certain styles of beer due to inadequate buffering capacity or other mineral issues.

How: Determine current water profile and how much mineral is needed.

Example: I have 34 ppm of calcium in my water, I need 100 ppm for proper enzyme activity. I have a 7 BBL brewhouse and will be adding CaSO4.

Remember: ppm is mg/L, so our answer will by in mg and we need to convert the volume to liters.

How: Determine total volume in Liters, amount of calcium needed in ppm, and percentage of calcium by weight in CaSO4 (23% by weight).

Solution: Ls = 7 BBL * (31 gallons/BBL) * (3.785 Ls/gallon)

= 821 Ls

ppm needed = 100 ppm desired - 34 ppm current

= 66 ppm needed

CaSO4 to add = 66 ppm / 0.23 (% of calcium by weight) * 821 Ls

=235,591 mg CaSO4

= 235,591 mg / (1 pounds / 453,592 mg)

= 0.52 pounds

Solution

Total Volume in Ls = 8 BBLS * 31 gallons * 3.785 Ls

Ls = 939 Ls

ppm to add = 100 - 9

= 91 ppm / .18 * 938.68 Ls

= 474554.89 mg

= 474554.89 * (1 pounds / 453,592 mg)

= 1.05 pounds

**Hop Calculations**

Why: To know how many hops to add!!!

How: Determine Hop Alpha Acid, Utilization, and Final Volume

Equation: Predicted IBU = Utilization * Alpha Acid * oz hops * 7490

gallons (final)

Example: IBUs from 2 oz of Galena at 60 min, 1 oz of Galena at 30 min, and 1 oz of Ultra at 5 min. Galena (13 % AA) Ultra (2.75 % AA) ( 13 % AA). Wort is 1.080 SG. Brewing 9 gallons.

IBU 60 = (20 % * 13 % * 2 oz * 7490) / 9 gallons

IBU 60 = 43.27

IBU 30 = (15 % * 13 % * 1 oz * 7490) / 9 gallons

IBU 30 = 16.22

IBU 5 = (3% * 2.75 % * 1oz * 7490) / 9 gallons

IBU 5 = 0.68

IBU Total = 43 + 16.22 + 0.68

IBU Total = 60.18

Equation: ozs Hops = Vol gallons * IBU

Utilization * AA% * 7490

Example: I want 24 IBUS in my 5 gallon pale ale at 1.040 SG from the 60 min addition.

ozs Hops = (5 gallons * 24 IBUs) / (23% * 5% * 7490)

ozs Hops = (120) / (86.14)

ozs Hops = 1.39 ozs

POP Quiz!!!!

Putting it all Together

Brewing a 10 BBL batch of Russian Imperial Stout.

Starting Plato: 18

Water Profile Currently: 58 ppm Calcium

Water Profile Desired: 270 ppm Calcium

Use CaCl2 at 23% Ca by weight

Malt: 73 % 2 row Malt @ 38 PPG

17 % Brown Malt @ 37 PPG

10 % Black Malt @ 22 PPG

Brewhouse Efficency is 86%

Hops: 58 IBUs for a 90 addition of 5% AA Fuggles

6 IBUS from a 15 min addition of 4% AA Hallertau

Utilization @ 90 mins = 25%

Utilizatoin @ 15 mins = 2%

Tell me...

how much calcium to add (pounds)

how much of each malt is needed (pounds)

how much of each hop is needed (pounds)

This is a given value that will be explained latter on

This is the theoretical

This is the measured

This tells me

total sugar I need,

what I am calling

"points"

This gives me

total sugar for

each grain.

This is simply converting mg to pounds.

**Quiz Solution**

First, convert plato and BBLs to gallons, liters, and SG

SG = 259 / (259-18)

SG = 259 / 241

SG = 1.075

Gallons = 10 BBLs * 31 gallons

Gallons = 310

Liters = 310 * 3.785

Liters = 1,173 Liters

Now you can work on the pounds of calcium

First, determine how much calcium to add

calcium needed = 270 ppm - 58 ppm

calcium needed = 212 ppm

Now figure out how much calcium to add

calcium to add = calcium needed / % by weight * Ls

calcium to add = 212 ppm / .23 * 1,173 Ls

calcium to add = 1,081,200 mg

calcium in pounds = 1,081,200 mg / 453,592

calcium in pounds =

2.38 pounds

Malt Calculations

The easiest way to figure out how many

pounds of malt you need is to first calculate

how much total sugar you need in terms

of SG units.

SG units = (1.075 - 1.000) * 1000

SG units = 75

SG total units = SG * gallons total

SG total units = 75 * 310

SG units = 23,250

Now you can determine how many units

you need from each grain.

2 row = 23,250 * 73%

2 row = 16,973

Brown Malt = 23,250 * 17%

Brown Malt = 3,953

Black Malt = 23,250 * 10%

Black Malt = 2,325

**Quiz Solution**

Now that you know how much SG units

is needed from each type of grain calculate

grain in pounds.

pounds of grain = SG units / PPG / Brewhouse Efficiency

Pounds 2-row = 16,973 / 38 PPG / 85%

Pounds 2-row =

519 pounds

Pounds Brown Malt = 3,953 / 37 / 85%

Pounds Brown Malt =

124 pounds

Pounds Black Malt = 2,325 / 22 / 85%

Pounds Black Malt =

122 pounds

Hops

oz of Hops = ( vol of beer in gallons * IBUs) / (Utilization * AA % * 7490)

oz of Hops 60 min = (310 gallons * 58) / (0.25 * 0.05 * 7490)

oz of Hops 60 min = (17,980) / (93.625)

oz of Hops 60 min = 192 ozs

pounds of Hops 60 min = 192 oz / 16 oz per pound

pounds of Hops 60 min = 12 pounds

oz of Hops 5 min = (310 * 6) / (.02 * .04 * 7490)

oz of Hops 5 min = (1,860) / (5.992)

oz of Hops 5 min = 310 oz

pounds of Hops 5 min = 310 oz / 16 oz per pounds

pounds of Hops 5 min = 19.4 pounds