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Everything You Need to Know about the Present Perfect of the

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Kirsten Carson

on 5 January 2014

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Transcript of Everything You Need to Know about the Present Perfect of the

Everything You Need to Know about the Present Perfect of the Subjunctive!
How do I form the Past Participle?
Las reglas...
If there are two vowels in the infinitive, then there is an accent mark on the í in the past participle. ( For verbs like caer, traer, leer, oír, reír, and creer)
Con expresiones de duda
To express doubt, uncertainty, or disbelief about actions in the
present
, you use the
present subjunctive
.
En cláusulas adjetivas
Clauses that describe nouns either:
El presente perfecto del subjuntivo
Yo
haya

hayas
Él/Ella/Usted
haya
Nosotros-as
hayamos
Vosotros-as
hayáis
Ellos-as/Ustedes
hayan

Past Participle of the Verb
Just add
ado
to -ir and -er verbs and
ido
to -ar verbs!
Imperfect Tense of Haber
Forming the Imperfect Tense of
Haber
BUT... some verbs have irregular past participles.
abrir
cubrir
morir
describir
escribir
ver
poner
resolver
vovler
decir
hacer
romper
abierto
cubierto
muerto
descrito
escrito
visto
puesto
resuelto
vuelto
dicho
hecho
roto
All negative words, object pronouns, and reflexive pronouns go before haber.(no, me, se)
Yo no creo que nosotras hayamos le
í
do lo suficiente sobre Chile.
Estábamos contentos que el hotel en Santiago
no
haya sido muy caro.
To express doubt, uncertainty, or disbelief about actions in the
past
you use the
past

subjunctive
.
No creo que La Moneda
hubiera abierto
lunes.
TRIGGERS:
*doubt, uncertainty, and disbelief
~Dudo que
~Es posible que
~Es dudoso que
~No creo que
~Es imposible que
(I doubt that)
(It's possible that)
(It's doubtful that)
(I don't think that)
(It's impossible that)
NON-TRIGGERS:
*stick with the indicative
~Creo que
~Estoy segura que
~Es evidente que
~Es verdad que
~Sabemos que
~No dudo que
(I believe that)
(I am sure that)
(It's evident that)
(It's true that)
(We know that)
(I don't doubt that)

~have a specific thing in mind
~don't have a specific thing in mind/aren't sure the noun exists*
~describe negative nouns ( nadie, nada, ninguno-a)*
indicative
subjunctive
subjunctive
La gira
es
sobre San Cristóbal.
Yo quiero un libro que
hable
sobre el Parque Bicentenario.
~Nadie
(no one)
, nada
(nothing)
, and ninguno
(nobody)
are normally used
* if the nouns follow the last two patterns mentioned and are spoken about in the past...
present perfect subjunctive
Fue imposible que nadie
he sabido
dónde La Chascona estuvo.
¿El subjuntivo o el indicativo ?
With Time
~después de que
~en cuanto
~mientras
~tan pronto como
~cuando
~hasta que

(after that)
(as soon as)
(while)
(as soon as)
(when)
(until)
*Use the
subjunctive
with the phrases if the action hasn't yet happened and the
indicative
if it already happened or happens regularly.*
For the purpose/intention of an action
~a menos que
~sin que
~aunque
~para que
~con tal de que

(unless)
(without)
(though)
(so that)
(as long as)
*These are usually followed by the
subjunctive
*If no subject change use the
infinitive
after para & sin
*With
aunque
use the
subjunctive
to express uncertainty and the
indicative
if there is no uncertainty
Después de que
nosotros comimos en Barrio Bellavista.
Infinitive:
Yo espero que La Moneda
se abra
lunes.

~Cualquiera
(whoever/whichever)
is normally used
Es imposible que nadie
sepa
dónde está La Chascona.
&
Yo
quería
un libro que
haya hablado
sobre el Parque Bicentenario.
Subjunctive:
Indicative:
Siempre corro
cuando
yo
voy
de vacaciones.
Yo fue a Chile
para aprender
su cultura.
Aunque:
Subjunctive:
Infinitive:
Nosotras vamos a los Andes
aunque llueva
.
Nosotras vamos a los Andes
aunque llueve.
REMEMBER: with perfect tenses, endings are singular/masucline
(although it might rain)
(although it is raining)
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