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Transcript of American Revolution
The American Revolution
Advantages for the British
- Larger, well trained, stronger army
- Great navy
- Wealthy country
Disadvantages for the British
- War was not on their homeland
Advantages for the
Disadvantages for the Colonists
- No regular army
Soldiers lacked experience and training
Fast turnaround of soldiers
Weapons, ammunition and supplies were low
- Weak navy
- Not all united
- Fighting on their own ground
- Patriots wanted freedom (victory meant more to them)
- Many of their soldiers were mercenaries (hired)
Known as Hessians
- Commander - George Washington
Battle of Long Island
- British sent 32,000 troops under General William Howe towards New York
- Patriots had less than 20,000 troops (led by Washington)
- British won and take over NY
- Patriots tried to send spies into the British troops
- Washington begged the colonies to send more troops (many had deserted)
- He urged African Americans to join the army
Some were promised their freedom and pay
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
Washington wanted to surprise attack a group of British troops in NJ
- On Christmas night, he crossed the Delaware River and defeated the British in both cities.
The Battle of Saratoga
Take over New York and control the Hudson River, so they could block the New England colonies from communicating with the Middle Colonies
- Patriots, led by General Horatio Gates, were awaiting the British forces in NY
- with the help of sharpshooters were able to hold the British off, and forced Burgoyne's troops to surrender
Promised to send money, supplies, and troops to the Patriots
"helped" - but did not ally
Sent troops to fight the British throughout the South
Winter at Valley Forge
Many troops deserted or died
- Washington and his troops dealt with a harsh winter at camp.
Very little food, supplies, clothing and shelter
- Marquis de Lafayette, from France, became one of Washington's advisors
- Friedrich von Steuben, trained the Continental Army and taught them hygiene at Valley Forge
-Juan de Miralles convinced Spain, Cuba and Mexico to send money to help the Patriots.
Fighting in the West
- Some Native Americans sided with the Patriots, but most joined the British
- The Patriots, led by George Rogers Clark, won 2 battles against the British around the Ohio River (Kaskaskia and Vincennes)
The War at Sea
- The British navy blockaded many colonial ports
- To break the blockade, Congress sent 2,000 privateers to fight against the British
- More privateer ships destroyed British ships than our American Navy.
War in the South
- The British won 3 major battles in the South: Savannah, Camden and Charlestown
- New British plan was to focus on getting more Loyalist support in the South and eventually work their way up the coast.
- Main British General was now Charles Cornwallis
- Small groups of Patriots would attack quickly, then disappear
This confused the British army
- Guerrilla leader, Francis Marion, and General Nathanael Greene teamed up to win more battles in the South
- They forced British General Cornwallis north to Yorktown, VA
The Battle of Yorktown
- Washington comes up with a secret plan to surprise Cornwallis in Yorktown.
14,000 American and French troops attacked 8,000 British troops
The French navy blocked the ports so the British couldn't get support
The French Arrive!
- Cornwallis surrenders and the Patriots win!
This defeat convinces the British to start negotiating a peace deal.
Treaty of Paris 1783
- England recognized the U.S. as an independent country
They promised to withdraw their troops from the U.S.
- The U.S. promised that Britain could collect any debts American colonists owed them.
1. British General John Burgoyne would come south from Canada, control the Hudson River and all of New York
2. A group led by Barry St. Leger would come from the west to meet up with Burgoyne and help take over NY
- This was the turning point in the war.
A Low Point for Patriots
3. General Howe would march north from NY, take over Philadelphia and meet up with the other 2 groups in Albany
- Casmir Pulaski, from Poland, joined the Continental Army and became a general
under the leadership of General Rochambeau
An American Naval Hero
- John Paul Jones, captain of the Bonhomme Richard, defeated the British ship, Serapis.
"I have not yet begun to fight!"
British soon capture Philadelphia, yet General Howe decides to stay in Philadelphia instead of going to meet the other groups in NY
Battle at Fort Ticonderoga
- General Benedict Arnold, with the help of the Vermont militia group called the Green Mountain Boys, was able to keep control of this fort in NY
- This slowed the progress of General John Burgoyne who was traveling towards Albany
- Known as America's most famous traitor
- He sold military information to the British and then switched sides and became a British soldier