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C. 1: What is Psychology
Transcript of C. 1: What is Psychology
History of Psychology
C. 1: What is Psychology
Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes.
Types of Psychology
Evolution of Psychology
Perspectives in Psychology
Observe & Describe the Behavior
Explain the Behavior
Predict the Behavior
Control the Behavior
Help people w/ psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia
Hospitals, prisons, etc.
Help people w/ minor adjustments, e.g., adjusting to careers, making friends, resolving relationship conflicts
Help students w/ problems that interfere w/ learning, e.g., peer or home life issues
Help school systems by discovering best strategies for learning and affecting factors such as motivation, beliefs, income, and instructional methods
Study the physical, emotional, cognitive, & social changes that occur in a person's lifetime
Study traits such as shyness and friendliness, gender roles, anxiety, aggression, etc.
Study people's behavior in social situations, e.g.:
Behavior of men & women in a given setting
Physical & psychological attractions to one another
Prejudice & discrimination
By-Stander Effect, Sheep vs. Sheepdog
Conduct experiments in order to examine biological or environmental effects on behavior
research and write a real world experience (subject) of a particular type of psychologist (as if you are making the observations) based on the 4 goals of psychology....
Format (10 pts)
Header - group name and individual names (2 pts)
Title - creative centered (2 pts)
Neat & Organized (6 pts)
Information (20 pts)
Observe & Describe (5pts)
Explain (5 pts)
Predict (5 pts)
Control (5 pts)
Prezi Presentation (10 pts)
4 Goals Clearly Identified (5 pts)
Minimum of 3 minutes (5 pts)
Socrates said "know thyself" (nosce te ipsum)
"The unexamined life is one not worth living."
Introspection - learning about oneself by examining our thoughts and feelings
Aristotle said "observe the mean"
Law of Associationism
We relate current experiences to past experiences in order to make judgements such feeling secure
Mental Problems = Signs of Demonic Possession
Water Float Test
Suspects that kept head above water were considered impure and thus, possessed
Suspects that sank were judged to be pure, but drowned
Basis in Alchemy
Pure metals sink to the bottom during smelting while impure metals rise to the top
Willhelm Wundt, Psychology Becomes a Science
First psychology lab
Structuralism - Consciousness broken up into objective sensations and subjective emotions
William James, Focus on Function
Functionalism - Our behavior & mental processes serve a purpose in adapting to our environment
Based on Darwinism, only the successful actions are repeated
"The definition of insanity is performing the same action repeatedly and expecting different results."
John Watson, Unconscious
Behaviorism - scientific study of observable behavior (NOT consciousness)
B.F. Skinner, The Reinforcer
When animals are reinforced, or rewarded, for performing an action, it is more likely they will perform the action again
Gestalt School, Gestalt = "to shape"
Perception is the whole representing the parts rather than the parts representing the whole
Learning takes place through insight (the reorganization of perceptions that enables a person to solve a problem)
Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, & Wolfgang Kohler
Sigmund Freud, Psychoanalysis
Pschoanalysis emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining human behavior
Unconscious processes determined behavior and feelings more than the conscious experience
most of what exists in the mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, & wishes
Human behavior is aimed at fulfilling these wishes, even if they are socially inappropriate
Mental processes shape our behavior, emotions and even personality traits
Similar to "natural selection," behavior patterns have a hereditary basis
Ever heard, "That family likes to fight..."
Study the mind as it plays a role in our cognitive activities such as thoughts, dreams, memories, etc.
Focus on the imporatnce of consciousness, self-awareness, and decision-making in the context of our experiences
We have the capacity for self-fulfillment and we are free to choose our own behavior
Unconscious forces determine behavior
Empasize the effects of learning on behavior
Social-Learning Theory - people can learn intentionally by observing others
Expectations and values influence wheether they choose to do what they have learned
Stuy the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status on behavior and mental processes
Why Democrats focus on the middle class and Republicans focus on the upper class?
Think of a behavior you experience daily from you or someone around you. In brief sentences, analyze that behavior using each of the perspectives discussed.
wis·dom [ wízdəm ] 1.good sense: the ability to make sensible decisions and judgments based on personal knowledge and experience
2.wise decision: good sense shown in a way of thinking, judgment, or action
3.accumulated learning: accumulated knowledge of life or of a sphere of activity that has been gained through experience
1. Define Psychology and explain the four goals of psychologists.
2. Analyze a real world experience of a particular subject from the point of view of one of the psychologists types discussed in class (as if you are making the observations) based on the 4 goals of psychology.
3. Through a personal experience, prove Aristotle’s theory of “associationism” and Socrates’ idea of “introspection.” Explain what it means to “know thyself.”
4. Match the school of psychological thought with the appropriate person.
5. Match the contemporary perspective with its description.
Focus on how culture influences our behavior
Kenneth Clark, African American that studied the negative effect of segregation on the self-esteem of African American children