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Copy of Settling the Great Plains
Transcript of Copy of Settling the Great Plains
Settling the Great Plains From the Native American's Perspective The Plains War The Term "Plains War describes the conflict in the west between Indians and settlers and miners that began around the beginning of the Civil War to 1890. It was dispute between the Native Americans and the United States over the matter of territory and culture. Important Indian Leaders Sioux
Pawnees 1851 and 1853 1858 1861 1862 1864 1866 1868 1874 1876 1877 1890 Treaties at Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson
•In 1851, the federal government signed treaties with various chiefs of different tribes at Fort Laramie and in 1853; similar treaties were signed at Fort Atkinson. These treaties established boundary lines for territory for each tribe. Essentially they formed reservations of land for the Indians.
Discovery of Gold in Colorado
• In 1858, the discovery of gold in the west spurred the settlement of the west
The First Conflict
• The first conflict started in Colorado. Government officials had attempted to force the Arapaho and Cheyenne from land that was granted to them 10 years earlier in the treaty of Fort Laramie signed in 1851.
• Warfare will continue for 3 more years until the Massacre of Sand Creek
• Santee Sioux of Minnesota attacked settlers moving into their hunting lands, which then resulted in a battle between the militia and the tribe. The Sioux where defeated and as a result, they were forced to move to reservations in Dakota Territory.
• On November 29, General S.P. Curtis ordered troops to attack all Indians.
• A Sioux war party attempting to block construction of the Bozeman Trail ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman’s command of 81 soldiers. They Indians did not leave a single survivor
• Custard wrote concerning Fetterman’s annihilation that the savagery depicted by the Indians had awoken a bitter feeling toward the Indians among the Americans.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
• Signed on April 29, the Treaty of Fort Laramie recognized the Black Hills, sacred land to the Sioux as a part of the Great Sioux Reservation. Also the Bozeman Trail which was the cause of a lot of conflict was abandoned as well in this treaty.
• This treaty was later broken by the invasion of miners and General Custer in search of gold in the Black Hills in South Dakota.
Discovery of Gold in Dakota Territory
•In 1874, gold was discovered in Dakota Territory, specifically the Black Hills, which resulted in a mass of gold miners flooding into Sioux and Cheyenne Lands.
Battle of Little Bighorn
• As a result, the discovery of gold in the Black Hills caused a flood of miners and settlers to travel into the Great Sioux Reservation. Chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse led their armies out of the reservation and begun to attack these miners and settlers in rage.
Nez Perce Trail
• In 1877, the Native American Tribe Nez Perce were ordered to move to a reservation. However, they refused, and their tribe leader Chief Joseph led them on a 1,400 mile march to Canada to escape the reservation. However, near the end of their journey, they were captured.
• The Dawes Act authored by Congressman Henry Dawes provided land for individual Native Americans. The Dawes Act broke up reservations and gave these pieces to Native Americans. A head household would receive 160 acres of land and single adults would receive 80 acres of land. Also, the land granted to the Native Americans under the Dawes Act could only be sold after 25 years.
• The purpose of the Dawes Act was to essentially Americanize Native Americans.
Final Clash at Wounded Knee
•A Paiute Shaman preached that Ghost Dance would restore the lands that were taken from the Native Americans back to the Native Americans. By 1890, this dance had spread through the Sioux villages in the reservations in South Dakota and revitalized the white’s fears of Indians.
•Due to fears of Indians rising again, many Americans argued that Indian leaders should be arrested. An order was put out for the arrest of Chief Sitting Bull. In the attempt to arrest him, Sitting Bull was killed on December 15 at the Standing Rock Reservation.
•Than, on December 28, the army rounded up Indians and brought them to a camp at Wounded Knee. Then, a shot was fired and both the native Americans and the Army began to open fire. Approzimately 300 Sioux died
Native Americans were often forced away from their homes. The Trail of Tears is one example of this. When several tribes such as the Cherokee were relocated or moved to confined reservations. Black Kettle- Cheyene indians
Red Cloud - Oglala Sioux
Sitting Bull - Sioux
Crazy Horse - Sioux
Joseph - Nez Perce
Tribes mainly affeted by the WestWard Expansion Video This is the surrendering speech by Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce during the Nez Perce March Sand Creek Massacre Later, the federal government made plans to build a road through their sacred lands of the Oglala Sioux. The Sioux were enraged and led by Red Cloud, they resisted the government for seven years. However, eventually the Sioux lost their land to miners in search of gold in the Black Hills. The Cheyenne and Arapahos including Chief Black Kettle did not know about this message and they had traveled set up a camp on Sand Creek believing that they had already made peace and fighting would no longer occur.
Colonel J.M. Chivington’s however, despite knowing that the Indians at Sand Creek had no intentions to fight any longer, surrounded their camp. His troops then fired upon the camp and soldiers hunted down men, women and children. An estimated of 400 native Americans died The Native Americans in rage, moved out of their reservations to attack miners and settlers in order to discourage them from settling in the Black Hills. The Black Hills were considered sacred by the Sioux which is why the Sioux were angered
In order to force the Indian army back to the reservations, the Army dispatched troops to attack in a coordinated manner and force the Native Americans back to their reservations. Lt. Colonel George Custer decided to attack a Sioux village on June 25. When he approached the Indian settlement, the Indian warriors split into two groups, one group would attack Custer’s men head on, and the other group would move to envelope Custer and his men in a pincer attack. None of Custer’s troops at the battle survived, and his other troops that had split from him arrived to late to help Custer. As a result of the death of a popular Civil War hero (Custer), the boundary lines of the reservations were redrawn, and the black hills were placed outside of the reservation and officially opened for settlement. IB Questions
Analyze the impact of economic development on the indigenous peoples of one counry of the region from the mid-nineteenth century to 1919. Economic development essentially impacted the Native Americans negatively. The U.S.'s economic development meant that more resources were needed to fuel its economy. As a result, territory that indians believed to be theirs alone was conquered as whites began to expand west. Discuss the impact of the development of the modern state on the Native American population in one country of the region. First, the development of the modern state means expansion and industrialization, both which are resource intensive. So the development of the modern state has a heavy impact on the Native American population because it took away a large portion of the resources that the Native Americans used. As a result, the Native American population would suffer because of a decrease in food and territory. Works Cited
Bailey, Thomas A. and Lizabeth Cohen and David M.
Kennedy. The American Pageant. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1998. 475-476. Print.
Bragdon, Henry W. and Samuel P. McCutchen and
Donald A. Ritchie. History of a Free Nation. Ohio:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996. 432-433. Print.
McCloskey, Mary Lou. “Surrender Speech of Chief Josehp”
GSU. Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
“Sand Creek Massacre.” Native American Legends. Web.
29 Nov. 2010.
The Americans. Houghton Mifflin Company. Chapter 13. Print.
“The Battle of the Little Bighorn, 1879”. EyeWitness to History. Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
“The Dawes Act.” PBS. Web. 28 Nov. 2010 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEMdN_4GAs4&feature=related