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The endocrine system

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Strahinja Talic

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of The endocrine system

The Endocrine System Why this interests me. My Future My dream that I hope to accomplish is to be doctor as either an endocrinologist or a cardiologist. This particular system interested me because I have always been interested ever since I was diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism (myexdema) and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. The two disorders are an autoimmune, and basically there are antibodies that react to an inflammatory response in the thyroid and attack the thyroid. I am often very tired in the mornings, very sluggish in the evenings, and have a sensitivity to the cold in my extremities when I don't take my medicine for a while. The Endocrine System The endocrine system maintains homeostasis and long-term control using chemical signals. The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete chemical messages we call hormones. These signals travel through the blood to the proper organ that has cells that have receptors for these type of signals. 3 classes of Hormones 1. Steroids

2. Peptides

3.Amines Steroids Steroids are lipids that are derived from cholesterol. Testosterone is a sex hormone for the male. Similar in structure, Estradiol is the responsible for many female sex characteristics. Steroid hormones are secreted by the gonads, adrenal cortex, and placenta. Peptides and Amines Peptides are short chains of amino acids, which most hormones are made of. They are secreted by the pituitary, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, and kidneys. Amines are derived from an amino acid by the name of tyrosine and are secreted by the thyroid and adrenal medulla. Solubility varies due to polarity of the amino acid. Synthesis, Storage, and Secretion Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions. Defects in the making of steroids cause imbalances with some side affects. When synthesized, they enter the bloodstream. They are not stored in cells and the rate of synthesis control them. Peptide hormones are synthesized as precursor molecules and processed by the ER and Golgi where they are stored in secretory granules. The granules dump these hormones in the blood when they are needed. different hormones can be made from the same precursor molecule by acting with a different enzyme causing a catabolic reaction. Evolution of the Endocrine System Most animals that are well developed with a nervous and circulatory system have an endocrine system. Due to convergent evolution, the endocrine systems amongst the crustaceans, arthropods, and vertebraes have similarities. The vertebrae endocrine system consists of glands, and diffuse cell groups scattered in epithelial tissues. The are more than 50 hormones that are secreted. Endocrine glands arise during development during the development of the tissue layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Endocrine Systems and Feedback Cycles The endocrine system uses negative feedback and cycles to help regulate physiological functions. Negative feedback regulates the secretion of almost every hormone. Cycles of secretion maintain physiological and homeostatic control. Non-Steroid Hormones Non-steroid hormones are water soluble, so the do not enter the cell, but bind to the receptors on the plasma membrane that causes a chemical signal to be generated inside the cell. Five different second messenger chemicals include cyclic AMP (cAMP) have been identified. Hormones THE END
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