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Crossing Borders: African Slavery and the Transatlantic slave trade
Transcript of Crossing Borders: African Slavery and the Transatlantic slave trade
"Trade" slaves vs. "settled" slaves
Structural links between African slavery and the Atlantic trade in slaves Stages in the Atlantic Slave Trade Census of the slave trade: We will never know how many African people were enslaved and sent to the coast
Largest forced migration prior to industrial revolution
by 1850, 1/3 of people of African descent in the world lived outside of Africa
Enslaved Africans exported to the New World: ~14-21 million
Enslaved Africans who survive to disembark: ~10-15 million
Proportion of enslaved Africans brought to North America: 5-6% (about 600,000 people) 1451-1871 Of 100 Angolans seized in Africa,
75 reached the marketplaces in the interior of their country
64 would reach the coast
57 would board ships
51 would live to step onto Brazilian soil
48 or 49 would live to see their first New World owner
28-30 would survive their first 3 or 4 years Mortality and losses in the Angolan Slave Trade Which nations invested in the slave trade? Where were enslaved Africans sent to in the New World? Where were Africans taken from? What was the heaviest period of the slave trade? Mapping origins by time period Enslavement
Transportation to the coast
Disembarkation Northern Nigeria, 1857 Senegal, ca. 1789 Angola, 1786-87 Central Africa, 1866 18th century Gold Coast, late 17th century West Africa, early 19th century Ship "Wildfire," 1860, near Cuba 1845, Mouth of the Congo River, Bound for Brazil British Slave Ship "Brookes," 1789. Mortality:
enslavement to coast: 15%
ocean crossing: 15-20%
first year in New World: 15%
Total: about 5 million.