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Recombinant Urbanism -1

7種 基因重組的都市設計實踐
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Cheng-Luen Hsueh

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Recombinant Urbanism -1

歐洲 對高樓的排斥,回到以歴史舊形式作為有象徴意義的介質,集體記憶, 場所感, 歴史感....
Analogous City by Aldo Rossi
memorable streets
stabilizer
Potentially indeterminable set piece
splendid public terrace
5 basic elements of city collage
ambiguous and composite buildings
Rowe & Koetter :field> 都市作為碎化的聚落enclave的系統,各自有自行組織的秩序系統
碎化的閲讀都市:
small utopias
vs. modernists' utopia
Aldo Rossi: analogical city
Rob & Leon Krier: 理性、科學
图腾Levi-Strauss: 圖騰運算子totemic operator
李維史陀 結構主義
field> symbolic intermediary
enclave
在城市中移動 > 複合的經驗,多面向、
序列性、連續性的拼貼
結合 曖昧、變化的都市樣態中的各種元素
armature
single-centered enclave
重複的元素> field
不同尺度: 建築類型、連續的立面、裝飾細部....
制高點

整個城市組織的感應
heterotopia
多重尺度、field的交界
同時存在兩種重疊、交替的閲讀
關係網絡中的 in-between
nostalgia-producing instruments
displace of space/time
Italian formal garden
懷舊的生産工具:『科學』的未來感受,
或是『浪漫』的過去
太空中心 Cape Canaveral, Florida
Galveston, Texas
油井
Caius Cestius 金字塔
Taranto 港
Alamo 城堡, San Antonio
Thornton 購物街 arcade, 里茲Leeds, 英國
畫家想像的
都市元素的組合
7 "Ages" of Postmodern Design
"IN ANY MAJOR MOVEMENT THERE ARE VARIOUS STRANDS RUNNING CONCURRENTLY WHICH HAVE TO BE DISTINGUISHED BECAUSE OF DIFFERING VALUES. HERE THE SIX MAIN TRADITIONS OF POST-MODERNISM SHOW THEIR COMMON GROUND AND DIFFERENCES AND ILLUSTRATE THE FACT THAT SINCE THE LATS 1970S POST-MODERN CLASSICISM AND URBANISM HAVE BEEN UNIFYING FORCES."
1978 Collage City
脱離 modernism
沒有單一參與者/設計師 可以單獨主導一切
在地參與者 具 全球性的關聯
以碎片拼湊連結 在地/全球 的流變
Modern Movement in Architecture,
Charles Jencks 1973
6. Assemblage
1. Decoupage
5. Montage
4. Photomontage
3. Bricolage
7. Rhizomic assemblage
2. Collage City
(plus Contextualism and Rationalism

Structuralist Levi-Strauss's
still image
Aldo Rossi "Analogical City" 1976
Generic Urbanism and Deconstructivism
Deleuze & Guattari > 21世紀 network city
蝶古巴特 /剪黏
具有 memory 的 assemblage
非Gestalt完形的整體
記憶保持在碎片内 /中性/既成
如同Marcel Duchamp
從碎片中構成敘事性 narrative
非古典/現代主義的邏輯
多中心都市的 jump-cut 的邏輯
analogy 類比
從類似中心性烏托邦的廢墟中 拼貼既成的形式
類比於 Bentham's Panopticon/ 羅馬的萬神殿...
類比的 類型/紋理 的識別過程
>> 參與者-設計師 建立正式的連結, 宣告自己的邏輯
不遵照現代主義的邏輯,結合相似的元素,激發都市複雜性
以既有紋理保留街道、包覆.... 隨意混合、配對
都市作為市民隨時間創造而成的物件
collective effort
參與者-設計師 之間的 poetic & symbolic 關係
廢墟 ruins、災難疊加的都市 (非中産階級科學的進歩觀)

衰敗中的、將被拆除的....

>>現代都市中短暫無常的本質
Cinema
Urban Design as
a re-combinatory practice

3 Re-combinatory Urban Elements
enclave
armature
heterotopia
The word enclave, derived from the French word to cut of or cleave, is fundamental to land subdivision, the making and documenting ofagricultural fields and culture. In Lynch’s terms it is concerned with “stasis” and rest, in Rowe’s terms a place where a particular actor canflourish, creating their own fragment and culture. Safe enclaves form the basis of all urban systems and dominated the culture of theagricultural world, becoming stopping places in the later systems of flow, like department stores or malls, factories or warehouses inproduction and consumption systems.
Armatures, on the other hand are linear sorting devices that handle flow, with carefully calibrated resting places along their edges (like
numbered storefronts along a high street). Rowe thought of armatures in terms of “Great Streets” like Fifth Avenue, New York, beside Central
Park, while Lynch thought of them as well-worn “Paths” used by pedestrians in the city. Paths could be stretched in space and time to become the
highway approaches to the city (in his A View from the Road with Donald Appleyard (1963). Robert Venturi, Denise Scott-Brown and Steven
Izenour provided the new notational system for observing such stretched armatures in their Learning From Las Vegas (1972). Armatures could
also be compressed down to 600ft inside multi-level malls as described by Barry Maitland in Shopping Mall; Planning and Design (1986).
enclaves as 1 or 2 or 3 depending on if they are in the single-center, agricultural model (e1), or in the twin pole, center and edge model of the
industrial system (e2) or the hybrid, post-industrial system of the “Reverse City” (e3). Similarly armatures can be categorized in this way as a1,
a2, a3, with the addition of notations for stretched (<a2>) or compressed (]a2[). I then propose formulas for the three models, where h is the
heterotopia which will be discussed below. When the actors employing enclaves dominate the City of faith = e1/ (a1+h1). When armatures
dominate the machine city = a2/a2+h2.
Delirious New York,
The Peak
Parc de la Villette
Heterotopias as places of change and recombination
Although both Lynch and Rowe and Koetter focused on urban actors, neither was very clear about how change could be
accommodated in their cities.
Michel Foucault in his short radio talk “Of Other Spaces” (1964) (which is on line at http://www.Foucault.info) provided a much more
convincing model of how urban actors changed cities through their control of activities in specific places with re-combinant codes.
Foucault called these places “heterotopias”, literally the “place of the other”. Heterotopias, like all enclaves have defined boundaries
that were more or less porous, and controlled entrances. Whereas normative enclaves are single function and mono-cultural,
Foucault describes heterotopias as multi-cellular, allowing disparate spaces, places, times, activities and people to co-exist within the
larger boundary of a single cell, held within the larger urban system. Heterotopias were unusual in the complexity of their structure
and feed-back mechanisms that enabled urban actors to co-exist
Six Principles
1. All cultures create heterotopias, and they take varied forms… (heterotopias of crisis, heterotopias of deviation)
2. Heterotopias constructed for one purpose can function in a very different fashion… (cemetary)
3. Heterotopias can juxtapose in a single real place where several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible.
4. How heterotopias linked to precise slices in time
5. Gates and walls that presuppose a system of opening and closing… (enter->excluded. Guest room of Brazilian farmhouse, motel)
6. Inside urban system as sites of freedom and illusion or as sites of compensation and discipline… (Parisian brothel, colonies)
Ship, floating piece of space, a place without place, exists by itself,close in on itself and given over the infinity of the sea….
Foucault described this complex system of feed-back and control in terms that I call the 3 “m”s. The first “m” consists of a mirror
function (derived from Lacan’s theories of delirious self-definition in a mirror), so that heterotopias reflected their surrounding society
but reversed the dominant codes, allowing the co-existence of forbidden mixtures. The second “m” consists of a system requiring that
these places be reflexive miniatures, a city within a city, mirroring in miniature the larger surrounding city’s structure and values.
Finally the third “m” required that these mixing places had to be multiple, that is they contained multiple cells, perhaps in multiple
layers, in which to mix different categories of people or flows of energy.
Foucault tried to create a “heterotopology” to describe the logic of these re-combinant places
There was the “System of Emplacement”, the equivalent of Lynch’s City of faith, based on fixed centers. The second system of
“Extension”, based on Galileo’s geometry, where there was a continuous space of extension through which the celestial bodies
moved with machine like precision that could be calculated by man, revealing that old centers were merely resting points in a line of
movement, the equivalent of Lynch’s “city as a machine”. Finally there was the system of “Relations” that created fixed or mobile,
flexible “Sites”. Foucault gave as examples of such “Sites” in 1964 information moving with a set pattern thorough a communication
system, or cars that move in relationship to each other through a traffic jam.
In the system of “Emplacement” there were “heterotopias of crisis”, where individuals went and were
hidden in the fabric of the city without disturbing the dominant order of society (my h1 category). In the system of “Extension”
there were “heterotopias of deviance”, prisons, hospitals, asylums, cemeteries etc that removed those who could
not conform to the dominant work ethic to specialized institutions outside the city, where they could be reformed and helped by
specialists in a rigid discipline (my h2 category). In the system of “Relationships” there could be “heterotopias
of illusion” where codes were very flexible and fast changing, the opposite of the prisons. Foucault gave as examples theaters,
cinemas, museums, art galleries, the stock exchange, bordellos and bath houses, all places that could contain multiple actors, values
and time systems at once and could switch image systems and value systems very quickly (my h3 category).
Conclusion:Heterotopias in Network Cities
The initial opposition of city and countryside was
dissolved in the city-as-a-machine model, where
movement and stasis became the binary poles
Now we appear to operate in world of virtual or
conceptual mapping versus the physical world,
where advertising and media communications can
rapidly alter our perception of the network city.
Where heterotopias as places of change were once
hidden and then moved out of town, now
“heterotopias of illusion” and pleasure have
proliferated everywhere. They are in the old center
as tourist attractions, in the inner city as gardensuburbs
and middle class utopias, in the Edge City
as theme parks and malls.
poetic narrative:
意外事件、個人特質、文化傳統、技術發明....accidents, personalities, cultural, traditions, technical innovations -->
非 功能的網路 finctional networks
The Rossian cemetery has no roof, floors, windows or doors; instead it is only a shell withopenings. Some of the openings are for light, others for views, access, and evencontainment of cremated bodies. Many do not hold this building in high esteem, as theyfind it depressing or ugly. But Rossi has found a way to make architecture metaphysical;the visitor is inevitably confronted with the thought of death, where truths are constant andirrevocable.
San Cataldo Cemetery, Modena
50s-70s
sense of the whole Gestalt in design
Literal and Phenomenal Transparency - Kolin Rowe & Robert Slutsky, 1955
Colin Rowe的文章 "transparency" 所確立的觀點來看,透明性會分成表像性 “Literal” 的透明,也就是物理性質上的透明,而另一種就是現象的 “Phenomenal”透明,意味著作為現象所發生的透明性。因為現象的透明的關係,透明不再是完全明確而轉變為一種不明確的,模擬兩可(ambiguous)的態。因此透明性似乎通過了解構,重組和雙關成為一種語言上的透明,一種寓意開始出現在透明的想法裡。透明性引申為透過看第一層的意義而思考其隱藏與後的幾層含意。

而在Colin Rowe 文章中最主要的比對就在於Walter Gropius - Bauhaus學院與Le Corbusier的 Villa Stein。大約同時間的兩棟建築,在透明的意義上生了兩種不同的詮釋。包浩斯學院的透明無法對現象上的透明提供一種含糊的透明概念(unambiguous) 因為其所使用的是玻璃的透明屬性。包浩斯展現了一系列的空間但是並非 ”空間維度上的矛盾" 因為其拒了其空間組織上任何一方有本質上的不同,因為被稱為阻止了一種潛在的模稜兩可的可能出現。而Villa stein則被認為展現了玻璃的平面特性,透過其立面玻璃與牆面的分格等手法,我們可以從其享受到某種猜測的樂趣。因為這裡的透明性不是由於玻璃窗所帶來的效果,於是就會回到一種基本的概念上,相互滲透卻不破壞對方。也因為這樣,Colin Rowe 敘述:人們可以享受看透一片玻璃幕牆後的樂趣,這樣或許可以同時看見建築的室與室外;但他因此幾乎不能意識到屬於現象的透明性的語義雙關所帶來的激動。
Literal transparency is perceived and definite, while phenomenal transparency is conceived and indefinite
Bauhaus 一二層樓相反的形式/空間上的運動,沒有提供(gestalt)參考 > 著重在對角的view point(大部份出版的照片) 拒絶了曖昧性
Villa Stein 多正向照片
<->
League of Nations, 1927
拼裝(bricolage)此概念最初是由社會人類學家克洛德·列維-史特勞斯(Claude Lévi-Strauss)在1962年所出版的著作《野性的思維》中所提出。他認為修補匠和原始人類解決問題的方法類似:修補匠喜歡凡事自己動手做,並且會運用手邊現有的工具和材料來完成工作;而當原始人類面對未曾遇過的問題時,並不會想出新的概念來解決,而是會重新組合並修改現有的方法,以適應這些新的狀況。研究其他學科的思想家與作家也會借用拼裝的概念,討論創意藝術家、教師以及其他人士是如何修改現存的想法、材料和做法,並再加以運用,以應付新的狀況

「博藝不精者」(Bricoleur)這個字源自於舊有的法文動詞bricoler。
相較於真正的工匠(李維史陀將之等同於工程師),這個人往往採用偏離正軌或「狡詐」的方式。
博藝不精者近似於「原始人的心智」,而工程師接近科學心智。博藝不精者的宇宙是封閉的,而且他往往被迫就手上所擁有的任何工具來從事工作,然而,工程師的宇宙是開放的,在於他能創造新的工具和材料。
然而,這兩者都生活在一個受限制的現實之中,也因此工程師被迫以類似於博藝不精者的方式,考慮這個先前存在的關於技術手段的理論與實踐知識的組合。
拼裝者(原始心智) <> 工程師(真正的工匠):從目標到方法

In his book The Savage Mind (1962, English translation 1966), French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss used "bricolage" to describe the characteristic patterns of mythological thought. In his description it is opposed to the engineers' creative thinking, which proceeds from goals to means. Mythical thought, according to Levi-Strauss, attempts to re-use available materials in order to solve new problems
拼裝
Paul Citroen, Metropolis, 1921
Giovanni Antonio Canal (Canaletto)
Italian Rococo Painter, 1697 - 1768
The Grand Canal, with an Imaginary Rialto Bridge and Other Buildings
as tool for triggering repressed emtions and memories
modern/industrial advertising/marketing
surrealists
Photoshop + internet
MVRDV costa iberica, 1997
剪接重組 序列的影片片段 > 創造運動(虚假的空間/情感空間/新的現實/隱藏在原地點背後)
super studio
archigram
Battleship Potempkin - Odessa Steps scene (Einsenstein 1925)
controlled movement in English Garden
空間經驗 建構於
運動系統 movement system
都市中敘事性的路徑 narrative path
picturesque 風景式的
The Picturesque: Studies in a Point of View, Christopher Hussey, 1927
The Picturesque Garden, Richard Payne Knight, 1795-1840
promenade architecture
Le Corbusier's Five Points of Architecture
Pilotis 獨立柱, 架高底層,吊脚樓...
The free design of façade 自由立面
The horizontal window 水平帶窗
open floor plan 自由平面
Roof gardens 屋頂花園
carpenter center
The Museumpark, measuring 440 by 130 meters, is bordered by the Kunsthal, the rose garden of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen and a canal. The park serves a diverse public: those seeking peace and quite, passers-by, theatre and film audiences, and concertgoers. OMA designed a multifaceted landscape for the park, divided into four zones to accommodate this broad public. A piazza of white stone chips, in which a diagonal pattern of fruit trees with chalk-whitened trunks is planted, forms the junction between the NAI and the park. This area is bordered by a mirrored wall, which reflects the surroundings and forms the gate to the ?theaterplein? (theater plaza). The raised, tarmack zone with electricity delivery points can serve as a podium for open-air film screenings, theater performances and concerts. This ?hard? area contrasts markedly with the adjacent romantic garden for which the existing planting formed the basis. Landscape architect Yves Brunier devised an additional planting scheme to ensure that the garden should remain attractive throughout the year. The garden can be traversed via the 100 meter-long bridge that leads to the forecourt of the Kunsthal. The park?s main axis ends in a ramp that runs through the Kunsthal and emerges on the Westzeedijk dike.
Kunsthal Museum, Rem Koolhaas
seattle library, rem koolhaas
Townscape storyboard,Gordon Cullen, 1960
nomadic artist's project
Homeless Vehicle Cart, krzysztof Wodiczko, 1988
The Millowners Association Building
Villa La Roche
high court, chandigarh
guggenheim
High Museum of Art, Richard Meier
沒有記憶/完形的回饋 no redemptive memory/ overall Gestalt (collage and bricolage)
沒有中心控制 no central/ overall system of command or feedback
無法預測、自主系統 >> 無法從在地尺度 得到 大尺度模式
齊夫定律(Zipf's law)可以表述為:在自然語言的語料庫裡,一個單詞出現的頻率與它在頻率表裡的排名成反比。所以,頻率最高的單詞出現的頻率大約是出現頻率第二位的單詞的2倍,而出現頻率第二位的單詞則是出現頻率第四位的單詞的2倍
"the" 是 "of" 的兩倍
自主經濟地理學
既成物件 隨機選取與組合,著重在組合過程,無關美學
Duchamp, 普普,Andy Warhol
Venturi and Scott Brown
藝術 art | 媚俗 kitsch
模糊
National Football Hall of Fame
James Stirling
Leicester Engineering Laboratory, 1959-63
re-introduce 敘事的路徑 narrative path
同樣沒有中心、控制點, 多重敘事交踏
John Hedjuk
Berlin Mask Project
Berlin Masques (1981) -
面具:再現 内/外 私密/公共 和善/邪惡.... 的調解
The masquse represent the mediation between inside , the private, the perverse and outside, the public and polite
These aspects stretch from a stylistic preference for basic, geometrically and tectonically controlled forms and elemental biomorphism (hair, beaks, eyes, legs) to typological variations on theaters, periscopes, caissons, funnels, traps, and labyrinths ; allegorically they include angels, animals, and machines as well as a set of reduced human characters (The Identity Card Man, The Mask Taker, The Lottery Woman, et al.) ; narratively, they employ traditions of folklore, carnivals, and masquerades in alternately melancholic and ecstatic moods; thematically they conjoin routinized craft and trade, falls from grace, and struggles of life and death.
毎個參與者actor 建構各自的面具/建築
在都市移動、互相互動、結合、再結合
Buenos Aires project.
Theatre Mask + Geometric Mask
Form of (extended, hidden) network / energy field
A Thousand Plateaus,
Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari, 1987
background
地下莖 作為隱喩:回應各種刺激而來的 去中心性網絡中的複雜互動系統
rhizome as a metaphor for complex system of interactions in a decentralized network that responds to stimuli
混合 獨立的敘事性路徑、
分享、溝通 集體的資訊、經驗的網絡
> 群體的意識
<
Layer 的概念誤讀
> 質疑 datum of sidewalk as city ground-plane
> 解構主義設計 > 空中、地下的平台
反對全球化下單一的資訊系統,透過在地知識測試各種假設
<> collage city
(風景式/歴史性 scenographic/historic)
rhizomic assembly 保有 gestalt記憶感 的整體 存在於碎塊中,bottom-up, 沒有單一控制中心
collage vity -> 王子
NYC -> 市長&市民代表
sim city -> 市長 檢視都市碎塊之間的關係
Conclusion
urban design 開始於 現代主義master-planning的崩解

設計師藉由在各enclave中 創造封閉的系統 過濾外在混亂的環境

urban design 提供彈性可適應的方法
處理碎化、多中心的都市區域

七種'-ages' 都存在/分享 一組共同的
都市元素:
armature, enclave, heterotopia

門禁的社區 gated community,
社區管委會 home-owenership association
Pruitt–Igoe housing project, St. Louis, Missouri. 1954-1972
Hudson's Department Store. 1998.
都市設計: 作為一種基因重組式的實踐
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