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Atoms And Bonds


Marta Grzeskiewicz

on 18 April 2010

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Transcript of Atoms And Bonds

Atoms and bonds Covalent Bonds Atoms Shells Each atom has a set amount of electrons Electrons are the things moving on the shells You can see how many electrons are in the Atom by looking at the periodic table On the first shell there can only be two electrons to complete the shell After the first one, the shells need 8 electrons to be completed. This atom (Carbon) is very likely to bond because it has an uncompleated shell Neutrons Makes up the Nucleus with Neutrons Have a positive charge Don't have a charge - are neutral. Zoom around the Nucleus Protons Have a negative charge. Electrons Has a relative mass of 0 Actually its 1/2000... but its easier to say 0 because its so small How do you find how many Electrons, Neutrons and Protons are in an atom? You look at the Periodic Table C 12 6 This is the name of the Element This is the Atomic Number This is the Atomic Mass How many Protons there are in the atom Because an Atom doesn't have a charge, The number of Protons and Electrons are the same. This is the number of Protons and Neutrons combined So to find the number of Neutrons, Take away the number of Protons from the Atomic Mass. Ionic Bonds How many Protons there are in the atom Have a relative mass of 1 Make up the nucleus with the Protons Have a relative mass of 1. Bonds They happen when two or more atoms have uncompleted shells. For example: Lets make Water! Oxygen It has 8 electrons, so the outer shell is incomplete this makes it bondable Lonely Electrons :( This is how you draw a diagram of an atom with electrons. Because all electrons are negatively charged, they repel each other. First, you draw the two electrons on the first shell opposite each other Then, on the second shell, you put the first four on the four sides Then, randomly the electrons decide to pair up. Why? They just do. So, an atom with two complete shells would look like this: Well Whaddya know? There are two Hydrogen atoms with incomplete shells! And because atoms like to do the simplest thing to do, they decide to bond and make life hard for us humans. But then again this does give us water.... And so, The three atoms join together to make.... Water!!! Then, even though there arent enough electrons to make all these shells complete on their own, these atoms share the electrons, and this works because the electrons zoom round so fast, that it doesnt make a difference. The Atoms Change Charge because the electron charge and proton charge become unbalanced If Sodium looses an electron the electrons become unbalanced, and loose the battle because there are more protons If Chlorine gains an electron the protons become unbalanced and loose the battle because there are more electrons SO IT HAS A NEGATIVE CHARGE SO IT HAS A POSITIVE CHARGE
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