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Southern Africa

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by

Tatiana Blanchard

on 6 October 2013

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Transcript of Southern Africa

Southern Africa
Background
First civilization emerged in Sumer
Adam's Calendar
linked with pyramids, all aligned with Orien's belt.
The stones are set along the same longitudinal line as the Great Pyramid of Giza
Tool Kit
Use of stone tools was prominent. .
The closer to the coast you went, you would see more baited hooks and fish traps.
Later sites showed a wide range of animals that were hunted from large game but also gathered and collected small game using traps
Fires were the focal point of most communities, some even being used to temper rocks..
'Oldowan' was found in Africa at Olduvai Gorge. It was discovered by Louis Leakey in the 1930s.

Migrations
Oldest human bones were found in Ethiopia.
Human migration is said to have traveled in many directions from Ethiopia, including Southern Africa
Bantu from the Congo
thought to migrate all over Africa
brought many technologies and ideas.
Between 1000-1800 AD
Geography of Southern Africa
Very diverse physical features in climate and vegetation
lush coastal plains, savannahs, and arid deserts, high snow-covered mountains
There are 3 major river systems
Zambezi, Limpopo, and the Orange rivers
Great Rift Valley
Zambezi river: longest river in the region ( today there have been 3 large hydro electric dams)
Limpopo (forms the border between Botswana and S. Africa)
Orange (forms the most important water system in S. Africa
Major rivers
Considered the cradle of the human race
stretches from Syria to Mozambique
Separates into two valleys
Created some of the deepest lakes in the world.
Eastern Africa, Olduvai Gorge excavated by Louis and Mary Leaky (50s)
Too little rain for thick forest.
large savannas (primarily grasslands and scattered trees.
More than 300 different kinds of mammals / 400 species of reptiles.
Vegetation and Wildlife
Material Culture
Numerous beads have been found in caves as well as with remains.
Beads made of perforated ostrich egg shells were found at Enkapune Ya Muto, They were dated to be 40,000 years old. They were found alongside stone tools such as microliths
10,000-12,000 year old 'petroglyphs' (rock engravings) were found in several areas across Africa
Notable sites
Apollo 11 cave in Namibia
Blombos on the southern tip of Africa
What happened?
Although the paleolithic period was filled with the migration of humans throughout the world many bands of humans remained and developed into much of the tribes we have today in modern day Africa.
While early humans relied on vegetation for food, cultures began to adapt.
Blombos cave showed a wide variety of food.
Late stone age sites have been found in Zambia
suggesting that the humans that did not migrate away remained and continued to develop.

Citations
Wikipedia.org
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enkapune_Ya_Muto
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Paleolithic
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Later_Stone_Age
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blombos_Cave
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_of_the_Upper_Paleolithic

youtube.com
http://michaeltellinger.com/adams-calendar.php
http://anthro.palomar.edu/hominid/australo_1.htm
Presenters:
Tristan Wylie

Tatiana Blanchard
Great Rift Valley
Full transcript