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The Endocrine System

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Mikaela Coker

on 19 March 2013

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Transcript of The Endocrine System

By Mikaela Coker The Endocrine System Function Controls chemical signaling by hormones Homeostasis This is the controlled state at which the endocrine system attempts to maintain in the body by the releasing of different hormones. It runs the endocrine system. Negative Feedback Mechanism This is a mechanism of homeostasis where a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change. Mechanism When acidic stomach contents are released into the duodenum the low pH stimulates certain endocrine cells of the small intestine called S cells. These secrete the hormone secretin. This hormone enters the bloodstream and reaches target cells in the pancreas. These cells release bicarbonate which raises the pH in the duodenum. The response to the secretin reduces the stimulus. The System Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Glands Pancreas Kidneys Ovaries Testes Bibliography Cell Signal Mechanism Diabetes It synthesizes and secretes neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones. These hypothalamic releasing hormones control and regulate the secretion of pituitary hormones.
Functions of the hypothalamus can be listed as:
•controls the release of 8 major hormones by the pituitary gland
•controls body temperature
•control of food and water intake, hunger and thirst
•control of sexual behavior and reproduction
•control of daily cycles in physiological state and behaviour also known as circadian rhythm
•mediation of emotional responses Antidiuretic Hormone -ADH

Increases water retention thus reducing urine volume and prevents dehydration. Also called casopressin because i can cause vasoconstriciton. Involves osmodetectors and blood osmolarity. Also functions as a neurotransmitter. http://quizlet.com/5823150/eight-hormones-produced-in-the-hypothalamus-flash-cards/
http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-the-Hypothalamus.aspx
http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/tc/melatonin-overview
http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/pineal-gland.htm
http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/p/pituitary-gland.htm
http://neurosurgery.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=432
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5778
http://quizlet.com/10264886/hormones-secreted-by-thyroid-gland-flash-cards/
http://cancer.about.com/od/cancerglossary/g/Parathyroid-Glands.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/adrenalglanddisorders.html
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002219.htm
http://www.udel.edu/chem/C465/senior/fall00/Performance1/epinephrine.htm.html
http://www.innerbody.com/image/endo03.html
http://www.yourhormones.info/hormones/somatostatin.aspx
http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/howkidneyswrk.cfm
http://drtummy.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=635
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002194/ The pineal gland produces several important hormones and is involved in several functions of the body including:
•Secretion of the Hormone Melatonin
•Regulation of Endocrine Functions
•Conversion of Nervous System Signals to Endocrine Signals
•Causes Feeling of Sleepiness
•Influences Sexual Development Melatonin
Helps control your sleep and wake cycles. Is termed the "Master Gland" because it directs other organs and endocrine glands, such as the adrenal glands, to suppress or induce hormone production. It is involved in several functions of the body including:
•Growth Hormone Production
•Production of Hormones That Act on Other Endocrine Glands
•Production of Hormones That Act on the Muscles and the Kidneys
•Endocrine Function Regulation
•Storage of Hormones Produced by the Hypothalamus Signals the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone which is essential for the regulation of body metabolism Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy. Thyroid hormones help regulate growth and the rate of chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body. Regulates body metabolism and bone growth, development of and maturation of brain and nervous system. Triiodothyronine T3 Responsible for monitoring and controlling the calcium levels in our blood. Calcium is an essential element for our nerves and muscles. When calcium levels are too low, the parathyroid glands produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH) that instructs bone cells to release calcium Located on the top of each kidney, these glands produce hormones that you can't live without, including sex hormones and cortisol, which helps you respond to stress and has many other functions. Epinephrine More commonly known as adrenaline, is a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism. This reaction, known as the “Flight or Fight Response” prepares the body for strenuous activity. Functioning as an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to control blood sugar levels throughout the day Somatostatin
Produced in the gastrointestinal tract where it acts locally to reduce gastric secretion, gastrointestinal motility and to inhibit the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, including gastrin and secretin Hypothalamus Pineal Gland Thyroid Parathyroid Glands Thymus Adrenal Glands Kidneys Pancreas Testes Ovaries A major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body through the urine. The critical regulation of the body's salt, potassium and acid content is also performed by the kidneys. They produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions:

•remove waste products from the body
•remove drugs from the body
•balance the body's fluids
•release hormones that regulate blood pressure
•produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
•control the production of red blood cells Erythropoietin
A hormone that once it is made acts on red blood cells to protect them against destruction. At the same time it stimulates stem cells of the bone marrow to increase theproduction of red blood cells. There are two ovaries located in the female pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. In addition to producing eggs, the ovaries produce three major hormones: estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin. Inhibin
A protein hormone that is secreted opposes the effects of estrogen and progesterone. Some functions of inhibin:
Signals the anterior pituitary gland to decrease the secretion of FSH
Signals the hypothalamus to decreased the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) There are two testes (also called testicles) located in the scrotum of males. In addition to producing sperm, the testes produce two major types of hormones: testosterone and inhibin. These hormones help with the development of secondary sex characteristics (in males) such as:
Growth of the penis and testicles
Growth of facial and body hair
Growth of the larynx (causing deepening of the voice)
Closure of growth plates in bones
Growth of skeletal muscles Testosterone
A hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes. Its secretion is stimulated by the pituitary gland. It plays a key role in puberty and promotes normal development of sperm. Testosterone is found in both males and females. One cell receives a signal from another cell (eg, brain neuron) to release an endocrine hormone which then hits a target cell or, first signals another endocrine cell to release another hormone into the blood which finally hits a target cell and a response occurs. All the pathways are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms (homeostasis) so you don’t produce too much hormone
The hormones are then swept out to all cells in the body and whichever cells can bind to the hormone will then start some kind of response. Their response will be restricted to what kind of signaling pathway they have and what kinds of proteins in the cell can be affected by the pathway. Type 1 Type 2 Both Insulin-dependent diabetes
Juvenile onset diabetes
beta cells produce little or no insulin.
Daily injections of insulin are needed.
The exact cause is unknown. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes
Adult-onset diabetes
fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin (insulin resistance)
high obesity rates, teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it.
Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. lifelong (chronic) disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood
Can be caused by too little insulin (hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both. Cushing's Syndrome Description:
Cushing’s syndrome consists of the physical and mental changes that result from having too much cortisol in the blood for a long period of time.

Symptoms:
• Weight gain, especially in the upper body
• Rounded face and extra fat on the upper back and above
the collarbones
• High blood sugar (diabetes)
• High blood pressure (hypertension)
• Thin bones (osteoporosis)
• Muscle loss and weakness
• Thin, fragile skin that bruises easily
• Purple-red stretch marks (usually over the abdomen and
under the arms)
• Depression and difficulties thinking clearly
• Too much facial hair in women

Prevalence:
Relatively rare and most commonly affects adults aged 20 to 50. An estimated 10 to 15 of every million people are affected each year.

Treatment:
The treatment for Cushing’s syndrome depends on the cause. Exogenous Cushing’s syndrome goes away after patients finish taking the cortisol-like medications they were using to treat another condition. Your doctor will determine when it is appropriate for you to slowly decrease and eventually stop using the medication. Insulin allows cells in the muscles, liver and fat (adipose tissue) to take up sugar (glucose) that has been absorbed into the bloodstream from food. This provides energy to the cells.
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