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Spanish American War

American Foreign Policy Project

Oliver Grueterich

on 2 May 2011

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Transcript of Spanish American War

The Spanish American War Decline of the Spanish Empire Declaring war Making Peace Aftermath Response to Essential Question President McKinley Cuban Rebellion: 25 April, 1898 1895 Led by Jose Martí - Father of Cuban Independence Treaty of Paris Aimed to revolutionize the cuban social and economic system December 10th, 1898 Attacked the economic power of the Spanish bourgeoisie by burning crops and halting economic activity on the island. Although Marti died in 1895, the efforts were carried on by Gómez and Maceo Spain reacted to the insurrection with a force of 200,000 troops and began to put the Cuban rebels into concentration camps on the island. Cuba technically gained its independence,but it was many years before the American trooops stopped intervening and left. Cuban elites were trying to appeal to the U.S. to intervene U.S. had invested in cuban market and made millions off of sugar trade with Cuba. Washington Protocol of Peace Bibliography Article 1- Spain will relinquish power in Cuba. Hernández, José M. "Maine, U.S.S., Sinking of the." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 327-328. Gale World History In Context. Web. 27 Apr. 2011. Article 2- Spain will cede to the United States Puerto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, and also an island in the Ladrones to be selected by the US.
Carey, David. "Cuba, War of Independence." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 709-711. Gale World History In Context. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.
Article 3- The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila. Article 4- Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies. Commissioners will be appointed in Cuba to arrange evacuation. Article 5- The United States and Spain will each appoint not more than five Commissioners to the treaty of peace. Article 6- Upon the conclusion and signing of this protocol, hostilities between the two countries shall be suspended.
Lerncer, Adrienne Wilmoth. "Spanish-American War." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 101-103. Gale World History In Context. Web. 27 Apr. 2011. "Treaty of Paris (1898)", Ohio History Central, July 1, 2005, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1411. Web. 27 Apr. 2011. America Spent $50 million on war preparations after the sinking of the USS Maine USA United States became a world power by acquiring the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico from a defeated Spain.
Carribean was secure, allowing construction of the Panama Canal.
US Navy gaining momentum.
3,000 casualties. Cuba went to Congress on Cuban officials could not attend the signing of treaty of Paris.
10,955 casualties
Technically free but still under American rule in some areas; America was allowed military intervention and Cuba was forbidden to sign any international treaties without USA's consent.
The House voted 311 to 6 and the Senate voted 42 to 35 to go to war Sinking of the USS Maine The death of 260 sailors stirred Americans and gave them an excuse to intervene Was sent to protect American lives in the Cuban Revolution Americans quickly concluded that the Spaniards were at fault Controversey over whether or not the Spaniards attacked the ship Gunpowder exploded inside the ship, which could have been sparked by a torpedo or a mine. 15 February, 1898 Long Term Impact The end of the Spanish empire was fueled by the US who moved up in the ranks as a world superpower quickly. "War of 1898." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 9. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 23-24. Gale World History In Context. Web. 29 Apr. 2011.
Platt Amendment-
US had limited control over Cuba. America was able to lease Guantanamo Bay forever. Reunited North and South after Civil War. Overseas empire including Puerto Rico and Guam; Phillipines for a short time. Puerto Rico Keko, Don, "The Lasting Impact of the Spanish American War." 6 May, 2010. examiner.com. http://www.examiner.com/american-history-in-national/the-lasting-impact-of-the-spanish-american-war Web. 29 Apr. 2011. Ceded to the United States. Phillipines Spanish Philippines attacked by US troops. S/P troops destroyed.
Filipino islands captured by US; they gained imperial control over the country.
This caused people to question the war because it was about freeing Cuba, not seizing the Philippines. "Spanish American War ans its Consequences" US History Online Textbook. http://www.ushistory.org/us/44d.asp. Web. 29 April. 2011 Caribbean Theater: Cuba Pacific Theater: Phillippines First battle was at Manila Bay, in the Phillippines on May 1 With this, the Americans backed up the Filipino Revolution (Previous to the War) Spike in ethnocentrism and the craving for Manifest Destiny. Allowed public support of the war. Naval officer George Dewey snuck past batteries guarding the harbor at night, attacking and defeating the Spanish fleet on May 1 without any losses Americans teamed up with the Filipinos and took over most of the islands, driving Spain from the Phillippines. American capture of Manila on August 13, the capital of the Phillippines, and Americans not letting Filipinos in, marked then end of the U.S. - Filipino collaboration. Eventually would lead to Phillippine-American War On June 20, Captain Henry Glass entered the Guam harbor, without the Spanish knowing they were at war. Guam was surrendered without any catualties, and its leaders were taken as prisoners. Pacific Theater: Guam The acquisition of the Hawaiian Islands, our entry into the Spanish-American War and the resultant debate over the terms of the Treaty of Paris Spain removed all of its troops from Cuba.
McKinley declared: "We want no wars of conquest; we must avoid the temptation of territorial aggression." Secretary of State John Hay said the United States should at last assume its "global responsibilities," and join the other great powers in the scramble for territory around the world. April 11 to ask for a war resolution Prelude Imperialist viewpoint was okay because the people felt it fit in with the national pride and idea of Manifest Destiny. Spain and America at War Spain signed Guam, the Phillipines, and Puerto Rico over to America. The United States compensated Spain for its losses with a payment of $20 million. Don't get involved in foreign conflict unless neccessary to protect USA. Foreign policy handled by the President. . . . . . . . . . Carribean Theater: Puerto Rico American's goal was to capture Santiago de Cuba Americans were forced to retreat at the first battle, the Battle of las Guasimas on June 24. The Spanish had the edge, fighting defensively and from concealed positions On July 1, the Americans made large advancements with 15,ooo troops, including Roosevelt's "Rough Riders", and won the Battle of El Caney and Battle of San Juan Hill Americans began a bloody siege on Santiago from the land and the sea Americans began to withdraw forces on August 7, due to high rate of yellow fever infections May 12 - U.S. Navy bombards San Juan harbor July 25 - U.S. lands 3,300 troops at Guánica August 12 - U.S. troops meet Spanish troops at a mountain known as Cerro Gervasio del Asomante They later retreat after hearing news of Spanish reinforcement
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