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Intro to sociology chapter on deviance and crime in America

Onika Samuda Coke

on 13 June 2013

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Transcript of Deviance

-Behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms.
-Behavior that departs from significantly from social expectations. Defining Deviance Crime Sociological Theories of Crime Arrests by Race Sociological Theories of Crime Sociological Theories of Crime Violent Crime in the United States Measuring Crime:
How Much Is There? Data on crime show that violent crime peaked in 1990, but decreased through the 1990s.
Since 2002, assault and robbery have continued to decrease, although murder and rape have increased.
Crime is greatly affected by how well the economy is doing—particularly the level of unemployment. Classifications of Crimes Personal crimes - murder, aggravated assault, rape, robbery
Property crimes - burglary, larceny, auto theft, arson Classifications of Crimes Victimless crimes - gambling, illegal drug use, prostitution 
Hate crimes - assaults and other malicious acts motivated by bias White-collar or Elite Crime Examples: embezzlement, insider trading, tax evasion
In terms of dollars, white-collar crime is much more consequential for society than street crimes. Organizational Crime and Deviance: Examples Sexual assault by Catholic priests, and attempted cover-ups by assigning offending priests to different parishes.
Deviant stock trading and accounting practices of the Enron Corporation of Houston, Texas. Race, Class and Crime Arrest data shows a clear pattern of differential arrest along the lines of race, gender and class.
Poor are more likely to be arrested for crime.
African Americans are twice as likely to be arrested for a crime than Whites. Victimization by Crime: A Class Phenomenon Incarceration Rates
for Selected Nations State and Federal Prison Population, 1980–2000 “Louisiana is the world’s prison capital. The state imprisons more of its people, per head, than any of its U.S. counterparts. First among Americans means first in the world. Louisiana’s incarceration rate is nearly triple Iran’s, seven times China’s and 10 times Germany’s.” ---www.nola.com/prisons/ Sociological Theories of Deviance Sociological Theories of Deviance Sociological Theories of Deviance Symbolic Interaction
Theories of Deviance Differential Association
Deviant behavior is learned through interaction with others.
People pass on deviant expectations through their social groups and networks. Sociological Definition of Deviance Stresses social context, not individual behavior.
Recognizes that not all behaviors are judged similarly by all groups.
Recognizes that established rules and norms are socially created. Durkheim: Three Types of Suicide Anomic - disintegrating forces in society make an individual feel lost and alone.
Altruistic - for the sake of a higher cause.
Egoistic - occurs when people feel totally detached from society. Symbolic Interaction
Theories of Deviance Labeling Theory
Responses of others is most significant in deviance.
A person may become deviant because of a label, even if he/she did not engage in deviant behavior. Theories of Deviance: Mental Illness Social Stigmas A stigma is an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited.
People with stigmas are defined in terms of their presumed deviance.
In hiding their stigma, they isolate themselves from communities where they can find support. The Lolita’s at Tyson’s Corner Mall INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY
NOVA Lolita fashion (ロリータ・ファッション, Rorīta fasshon?) is a fashion subculture originating in Japan that is based on Victorian-era clothing as well as costumes from the Rococo period, but the style has expanded greatly beyond these two.

The Lolita look began primarily as one of modesty with a focus on quality in both material and manufacture of garments. The original silhouette is of a knee length skirt or dress with a 'cupcake' shape assisted by petticoats, but has expanded into various types of garments including corsets and floor lengths skirts. Blouses, knee high socks or stockings and headdresses are also worn. Who Am I? What We Need to Do
• End poverty by creating jobs that offer livable wages, increasing the minimum wage, expanding job training programs, making college affordable for every student, and expanding income supports such as the Child Tax Credit.
• Ensure all children and pregnant woman have access to affordable comprehensive health and mental health coverage and services.
• Make early childhood development programs accessible to every child by ensuring such programs are affordable, available and of high quality.
• Help each child reach his/her full potential and succeed in work and life, by ensuring our schools have adequate resources to provide high quality education to every child.
• Expand prevention and specialized treatment services for children and their parents, connect children to caring permanent families, improve the quality of the child welfare workforce and increase accountability for results for children.
• Reduce detention and incarceration by increasing investment in prevention and early intervention strategies, such as access to quality early childhood development and education services and to the health and mental health care children need for healthy development. Children’s Defense Fund: Prison Pipeline Report, 2009 Louisiana:
“The World’s Prison Capital…” Some Facts: One in 86 Louisiana adults is in the prison system, which is nearly double the national average. Functionalist or
Symbolic Interactionist? “Louisiana has some of the stiffest sentencing guidelines in the country. Writing bad checks in Louisiana can earn you up to 10 years in prison. In California, by comparison, jail time would be no more than a year.”
Q: Why would it be important for business owners to maintain full beds in local jails or state prisons? Who profits? Key Facts A Black boy born in 2001 has a 1 in 3 chance of going to prison in his lifetime;
A Latino boy a 1 in 6 chance;
A White boy a 1 in 17 chance.
A Black girl born in 2001 has a 1 in 17 chance of going to prison in her lifetime;
A Latino girl a 1 in 45 chance;
And a White girl a 1 in 111 chance. Children’s Defense Fund: Prison Pipeline Report, 2009 Key Facts The public school suspension rate among Black and American Indian students is almost three times that for Whites. Black, Latino, and American Indian children are more than twice as likely as White children to drop out of school.
According to the US Department of Education, only 59 percent of Black and 61 percent of Latino students graduated from high school on time with a regular diploma in 2006 Children’s Defense Fund: Prison Pipeline Report, 2009 Key Facts Only 48,000 Black males earn a bachelor’s degree each year, but an estimated 1 in 3 Black men ages 20-29 is under correctional supervision or control. Approximately 815,000
Black males were incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails at mid-year 2007. Children’s Defense Fund: Prison Pipeline Report, 2009 More than 50 percent of Louisiana’s inmates are in local prisons, which is more than any other state. The next highest state is Kentucky at 33 percent. The national average is 5 percent. Louisiana leads the nation in the percentage of its prisoners serving life without parole.

• Louisiana spends less on local inmates than any other state. Nearly two-thirds of Louisiana’s prisoners are nonviolent offenders. The national average is less than half.
Q: What is an example of a “nonviolent crime”? Functionalist, Symbolic or Conflict Perspective? “…in order for the local prisons to remain profitable, the beds, which one prison operator in the series distastefully refers to as “honey holes,” must remain full. That means that on almost a daily basis, local prison officials are on the phones bartering for prisoners with overcrowded jails in the big cities.”
Q: What sociological perspective best supports this notion? How/ why? Conflict: Prison Reform? According to the article, Lifers at state prisons can learn to be welders, plumbers or auto mechanics — trades many will never practice as free men — while prisoners housed in local prisons, and are certain to be released, gain no skills and leave jail with nothing more than “$10 and a bus ticket.”
Q: Who benefits from this system? Who suffers? The Prison Pipeline Louisiana was one of three states and the District of Columbia to receive an F for K-12 achievement in 2012, and, this year, the state, over all, is facing a $220 million deficit in its $25 billion budget.

The more money the state (of LA) spends on incarceration, the less it can spend on preventive measures like education. Born: Robert Nesta Marley, Kingston, JA
Religion: Rastafarian
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