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AP Bio Chapter 51 Animal Behavior

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Mark Hellinger

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of AP Bio Chapter 51 Animal Behavior

MARK HELLINGER
EMILY STEEN

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
51.3 & 51.4

51.3
2.A.1 All living systems require constant input of free energy
1.A.1 Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution
1.A.2 Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations
1.A.3 Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes
1.A.4 Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics
51.3 SELECTION FOR INDIVIDUAL SERVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION SUCCESS CAN EXPLAIN MOST BEHAVIORS
51.4 INCLUSIVE FITNESS CAN ACCOUNT FOR THE EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR INCLUDING ALTRUISM
Animals get their essential nutrition through
foraging
,
food obtaining behavior
Ex. The fruit fly provides evidence how foraging has evolved. The gene forager dictates the food search behavior. On average fruit flies with the For^R allele travel twice as far while feeding as do larvae with the For^5 allele.
Biologist sometimes apply the cost-benefit analysis to study the proximate and ultimate causation of diverse foraging strategies.
Optimal foraging model
says natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that maximizes the benefits.
Risk of predation is one of the most significant costs to a forager
MATING AND PARENTAL CARE
Based on the offspring's innate abilities, the father may support the child or move to a new mate.
In mammals, the father plays no role in raising the young, however he protects the female and young
Certainty of Paternity plays a role in paternal support of offspring and mating behavior
CHOOSING A MATE
Females choose males based on characteristics that show the males health status and vitality
Females take characteristics from their father when choosing a mate
Mate choice copying
-

an individual copies a mate choice of another; a result of social learning
Competition involves agonistic behavior, a competition which competitor gains access to a resource(food or mate)
Game theory
, evaluates alternative strategies in situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all the individuals involved
Game theory provides a way to think about complex evolutionary problems where relative performance is key to understanding evolution of behavior
Genetic Basis of Behavior
In fruit flies a single gene controls courtship rituals, if this gene is inactive the fruit fly perform this ritual
Altruism
- a behavior that reduces an individuals fitness but increases the fitness of other individuals in the population
Inclusive Fitness
-
th
e total affect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing offspring and providing aid that allow close relatives to produce offspring
Essential Knowledge
51.4
1.A.1 Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution
1.A.2 Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations
1.A.3 Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes
1.A.4 Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics
2.E.3 Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection
MATING BEHAVIOR
Promiscuous
-

no strong paired bonds
monogamous-
one male with one female
polygamous
-individual of one sex mating with many of the other
the extent to which males and females differ in appearance is called sexual dimorphism
Coefficient of relatedness(r)
-

r equals the fraction of genes that are shared natural selection favors altruism where there the benefit multiplied by the coefficient exceeds the cost
Hamilton's rule
- rB>C
r=
Coefficient of relatedness
B=benefit to altruist
C=cost to altruist
The natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives is
Kin Selection
Reciprocal Altruism
- Behaviors that are altruist to non-relatives
Sociobiology
- certain behavioral characteristics exist because they are expressions of genes
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