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Acids and Bases

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Elizabeth Fa'amamafa

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Acids and Bases

Acids and
Bases By Elizabeth Fa'amamafa Acid Ac·id pronounced asid
Noun: A chemical substance
(typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid)
that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red.
Adjective: Containing acid or having the properties of an acid; in particular, having a pH of less than 7.
Synonyms: sour - acrid - sharp - acetous - acrimonious Base A BASE is a substance that reacts with an ACID to form a SALT & WATER only.
Bases are Hydroxides (OH-) or Oxides (O2-) of metals including ammonium hydroxide. A substance that is neither an acid or base and has a pH of 7 Neutral たべものをもってきてください たべものをもってきてください Everyday
Examples: Vinegar (acid)
Baking Soda (base)
Salt (base)
Soap (base) Everyday
Examples: Sulfuric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide Alkali A soluble base that releases hydroxide ions when in water. Neutralization Reactions: base+acid e.g. When we take antacid pills to neutralize the extra Hydrochloric acid in our stomachs. Some more examples: acid+metal hydroxide acid+carbonate Examples of everyday Neutralization reactions: Sugars from the food we eat turn acidic by the bacteria in your mouth, Toothpaste is a base so it neutralizes the acid in your mouth and stops tooth decay Bee and ant stings are acidic and so to neutralize them, we add a weak base such as baking soda. Wasp stings are basic and so to neutralize the sting, you add a weak acid such as vinegar. Baking soda is a base and when used, it reacts with the acid in milk, producing Carbon dioxide and causing the dish to rise. The pH Scale The pH scale is used to identify the acidity or bacisity of substances when using the Universal Indicator. When the substance turns purple, it means that the substance is strongly basic with a pH of about 12-14. If the substance goes blue, it means it is a base with a pH of around 10-12 and a weak base would have a pH of around 8-10. A neutral substance would turn green. If a substance turns yellow, it means that it is slightly acidic with a pH of around 5-6. If it turns orange it means it is a weak acid with a pH of 4-5. If the substance goes light red, it would have a pH of 2-4 and would be a quite strong acid and a dark red substance would have a pH of 0-2 and would be a very strong acid. Indicators in the Lab: A common indicator used in the lab is litmus paper. it is effective if you want to find out whether a substance is acidic or basic, but that's it. It doesn't show you or indicate the acidity or bacisity level. Another example of an indicator is phenolphthalein which goes colorless in an acid and pink in a basic substance. Natural Indicators: A natural indicator is a solution that
changes colour at different pH levels, however these indicators are dis-similar to common indicators such as phenolphthalein as natural indicator solutions are derived from chemicals from organic materials such as carrots, berries and beetroot. Ideas to Reduce Acid Rain: Use alternative energy sources such as batteries, electricity, solar and wind power etc.
Plant a tree, we don't seem to have enough and trees will absorb some of the polluted air and put out fresh, clean oxygen
Educate others and make people aware of the effects acid rain can have
Use cars, buses taxis etc. as little as possible and whenever possible walk, run or cycle to your destination. water+salt water+carbon dioxide+salt water+metal salt Acid Rain
How it is formed and the effects it can have.
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