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Introduction to Psychology Study Guide Ver. 1

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Scott Geyer

on 17 July 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Psychology Study Guide Ver. 1


Name
Physiology
Hard Science
Study human body
into smaller structural units
compartmentalize brain
5 Major Modern Schools of Thought in Psychology
1. Psychoanalytic - Frued
2. Behaviorism
Classical - Pavlov & Watson
Operant - Skinner
3. Cognitive - Piaget & Vygotsky
4. Humanistic - Maslow & Rogers
5. Biopsychological
(Evolutionary: Darwinism
David Buss - contempory
Introduction to Psychology
Study Guide

Frued's 5 Psychosexual Stages
Sigmund
Freud
Psychology
Philosophy
Soft Science
Parents of
Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
soft science
Social Science
The
systematic
study of people.
Goals
1.
Description
: naming/classifying - empiricism

2.
Understanding
- causes of behavior

3.
Prediction
- forecasting behavior

4.
Control
- altering human condition
(alter conditions that influence behavior)
Wilhem Wundt
father/founder of Psychology
1879 Lepzig, Germany
Est. 1st Psychological Laboratory
Est. Psychology as science
"Research"
Structuralism
Edward Titchener
Patterned after Physiology
Observation
Introspection
Functionalism
William James
Thought is free flowing
river stream
"stream of consciousness"
First Schools
of Thought
Functionalism gave rise to modern applied psychology
Grand-daddy of Psychology
Austrian Jew
Not a scientist
Prolific writer
invented talk therapy (psychoanalysis)
foundation for psychology

coined term "Hysteria"
discovered cocaine
missed anesthetic properties
become addict
cigars -> cancer
Told daughter Anna when pain was too much, it would be time. -> lethal injection

precocious child
special bond with mother
"My Golden Haired Siggy"

Frued's Day
Sexuality was repressed
women had no voice
sexuality
aggression
underpinnings of
Frued's
Theoretical
construct
Age
Erogenous Zone
Significance
Fixations
1. Oral
Birth-1
Mouth
sustenance + nurturing
nailbiting, smoking, thumbsucking, toothpick
2. Anal
1-3
Phallus/Genitalia
Sexual Roles
Anus
Control the Sphincter Muscle
Anal Retentive Personality
Anal Expulsive Personality
hold onto everything
wide open to everything
3. Phallic
3-6
Oedipal Complex
Electra Complex
Penis Envy
Horney extrapolated from Oedipal Complex
The female child is attracted to the father. She wants to covet the father. She is loving and desirous of the father
But
she fears reprisal from the mother in the form of coming and stealing away her babies. So fearing reprisal she abandons her desire for her father and forms a same sex bond with the mother through which she learns the appropriate feminine gender role in society.
The male child is attracted to the mother. He wants to covet the mother. He is loving and desirous of the mother
But
he fears reprisal from the father in the form of castration. So fearing reprisal, he abandons his desire for his mother and forms a same sex bond with the father through which he learns the appropriate masculine gender role in society.
Power
Prestige
Position
4. Latency
6-Puberty
"None"
Same Sex Friendships
social & emotional development & values
5. Genital
P-Young Adult
Genitalia
Reawakening of sexual roles
Who am I? values, ethics
begin to question parent's values
Freud Thought:
"Anatomy is destiny"
You have Phallus > You don't have phallus
clitoris = broken penis
women envy men - phallus
have
have not
Nature v. Nuture
Which
most profoundly
effects the development of the organism?

Rousseau
"Nativism"

John Locke
"Tabula Rasa"
blank slate
Latin/Roman word
- wax tablet
"Freedom of individuals to author their own soul"
mind is born with ideas
Key Terms

hard wiring
genetics
heredity
physiology
biological makeup
DNA/RNA twist
Key Terms
family
experience
upbringing
culture
peers
religion
Nature
Nuture
Psychoanalysis
Freud's 3 Dynamics of Personality
1. Id
2. Ego
3. Superego
Overactive
Superego
pleasure principle
100% self gratifying
Base/Hedonistic

Instinctual
life
eros
death
thantos
Id will get what it wants!
me!
me!
me!
now!
now!
now!
reality principle
mediate between
Id and Superego
* Balancing dynamic
Ensure Id gets what Id wants but in a manner consistent w/ superego.
moralistic principle
judgemental
"conscience"

Responsibility
acknowledge
make reparations
guilt
blame
shame

beat yourself up
stew

1. Unconscious Mind
1. Hypnosis
(Charcot)
2. Dream Analysis
Manifest Content
(Imagery)
Latent Content
(Symbolism)
3. Transference
- transfer your feelings onto the therapist
Countertransference
- therapist transfers feelings onto client
4. Free Association
(word/word)
2. Preconscious Mind
TOT Phenomenon
- tip of the tongue
Parapraxis
- slip of the tongue
3. Conscious Mind
Waking Mind
Talk Therapy
(Psychoanalysis)
Freud's
3 Levels
of Mind

"Freud Lives in the unconcious domain"
Behaviorism
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov
USC
CS
UCR
CR
unconditioned


stimulus
conditioned


stimulus
unconditioned


response
conditioned


response
food
bell
association
salivated
Naturally
Learned
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even into beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors."
Experiments w/ Animals / Laboratory
Little Albert
held white mouse, struck w/ rod
generalized fear to anything white
instead of taking him through extinction phase
kept experimenting on him.
Watson
Operant Conditioning
B. F. Skinner
Radical Behaviorist
Foremost American Psychology Theorist
Positive reinforcement
receiving a positive stimuli
"Reward"
removal of a negative stimuli
a sanction
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
+R
-R
"P"
Reinforcement
- continuation of behavior
Punishment
- discontinuation of behavior
Cognitive School of Thought
Piaget
Age/Stage
Theorist
"Little Scientists"
Exploration:
Active Learners
Reach the same stage of cognitive development at the same age
Name Age Significance
1. Sensorimotor

2. Preoperational

3. Concrete Operational

4. Formal Operational
0-2
2-7
7-11
11
sensory input
motor responses
coordination
symbolic representation
language
conservation
egocentric (early), intuitive (later)
simplified/concrete
time, space, volume, number
reversibility
Intellectual, abstract, theoretical, hypothetical thinking
"in your head"
Vygotsky
Scaffolding
ZPD
Zone of Proximal Development
framework or temporary support
stand on it
work with someone w/ knowledge base,
step by step process
having already learned a concept you have a mastery of knowledge.
"In the Zone"
Schools of Thought
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