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The Civil Rights Movement
Transcript of The Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement
Brown vs. Board of Education
-From 1939 to 1961, the NAACP's Chief Council and director of its legal defense and education fund was Thurgood Marshall
Murder of Emmett Till
- Was Beaten for whistling at a white girl.
- The men that knew the girl beat up Emmett Till eventually killing him
-His mother gave an open casket funeral so people can see how unrecognizable he was
-The two men who beat up Emmett were caught and given a trail
-They ended up not guilty.
Dec. 1, 1955
During the Brown v. Board of Education
carpool or walk
Dec. 1956 Supreme Court decides that
the bus segregation law is unconstitutional
The Southern Manifesto
Little Rock 9
-9 African American students admitted
to Central High.
-Gov. Orval Faubus created a campaign
defending white supremacy.
-President Eisenhower sent 1000
soldiers to control the mob.
The Sit-in Movement/ Formation of SNCC
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) to organize efforts for desegregation and voter registration throughout the south.
: a form of protest first used by union workers in the 1930's.
Sit-ins can cause disruption that draws attention to the protest.
They are a non-violent way to effectually shut down an area or business.
-In 1961, student activists from the Congress of Racial Equality launched the Freedom Rides to challenge segregation on interstate buses and bus terminals.
-Traveled on buses from Washington, D.C., to Jackson, Mississippi, where the riders met violent opposition in the Deep South.
-In some cases, the police cooperated with Ku Klux Klan and other whites opposing the actions and allowed mobs to attack the riders.
16th Street Baptist Church
Formation of SCLC
Murder of Medgar Evers
Washington March/ MLK's Speech
-On August 28, 1963, an estimated quarter of a million people marched from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, in what turned out to be both a protest and a communal celebration.
-The march was extensively covered by the media, with live international television coverage.
-The two most noteworthy speeches came from John Lewis and Martin Luther King, Jr
-King's speech remains one of the most famous speeches in American history.
Assassination of JFK
In 1957 "The Southern Christian Leadership Conference" was formed.
It was aimed to advance the cause of civil rights in America.
It was led by President Martin Luther King Jr, he was president until his murder in 1968.
The Formation of SCLC was set out to eliminate segregation from americans society and to encourage African Americans to register to vote.
The organization challenge segregation at the voting booth in public transportation housing in public accommodations.
The SNCC and CORE attempt to help register African Americans in Mississippi to vote
Started June 1964 and lasted 10 weeks
8 murders, 1,000 arrests, 40 church bombings, and 80 injured.
LBJ Signs Civil Rights Act
- On July 2, 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president for the Civil Rights Act and also signed it into law.
- The law gave the attorney general power to end the discrimination and segregation.
- Discrimination was based on race,
color,religion or national origin, and
granted the federal government new
powers to enforce the law.
Assassination of Malcolm X
Selma Montgomery March
March 7, 1965-March 25, 1965
-stopped on other side of
Edmund Pettus Bridge.
2nd attempt: March 9
-ministers from all over the
country came to march.
3rd attempt: March 21-25
-made it to Montgomery.
People demanded armed self-defense and states that would let African Americans live freely separate from whites.
During this time, "Black Power" became a term with different meanings .
To most African Americans, it meant cultural pride and having equal rights
The idea was in many ways opposite to Dr. King's ideas
LBJ Signs Voting Rights Act
-In August 6, 1964 the Voting Rights Act outlawed literary test for colored voters.
-It also outlawed the poll tax for colored people who first passed the literary test.
-Voting Rights have allowed colored people to vote without having to be tested and vote freely, having equal rights as a white man.
-The act prohibited literacy tests or other discriminatory practices for voting.
-Also insured consistent election practices.
The Watts Riot
August 11-17, 1965
Watts, a neighborhood in LA had a race riot.
This riot was known to be very violent and lasted 6 days. Rioters even burned down multiple neighborhoods.
Member of LAPD and other police officers showed a lot of brutality.
34 people killed, 1,000 injured, 3,000 arrested
James Meredith started a march on June 5 from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi to encourage African Americans to vote
Just a day later, Meredith was shot & wounded. However, leaders of civil rights organizations such as SCLC, CORE, & SNCC helped continue this march.
For three weeks, thousands of people joined to walk from Memphis to Jackson
2,500-3,000 black Mississippians were registered to vote
Murder of Dahmer
Vernon Dahmer, leader of NAACP group in Hattiesburg, Mississippi
Encouraged black people to vote, "If you don't vote, you don't count."
Kept a voter registration book
Assassination of MLK
-At 6:01 p.m. on Thursday, April 4, 1968, while he was standing on the motel's second floor balcony, King was shot, violently falling back.
-The bullet entered through his right cheek, breaking his jaw, and several vertebrae as it traveled down his spinal cord, severing the jugular vein in the process before lodging in his shoulder.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Birmingham, Alabama on September 15, 1963, the 16th street Baptist Church was bombed.
Bobby Frank Cherry, Thomas Blanton, Herman Frank Cash, and Robert Chambliss of the KKK planted dynamite.
Four young girls named, Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson and Denise McNair were killed.
-Plessy v.s. Ferguson case = segregation is constitutional.
-Brown v.s. Board of Education overturns Plessy v.s. Ferguson case
by saying it is unconstitutional.
-On May 17, 1954, the supreme court unanimously decided in the case of Brown v.s. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
-On November 21, 1963, President Kennedy, accompanied by the First Lady, traveled to Texas, where he was scheduled to make a number of appearances to rally up support for the Democratic Party.
-The following day, November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was traveling in an open top car through the streets of Dallas when three loud rifle shots rang through the air.
-Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested on suspicion of Kennedy’s murder.
-He was not given an opportunity to defend himself
-James Earl Ray was an American criminal convicted of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
-He confessed to the crime on March 10, 1969, his 41st birthday, and after pleading guilty was sentenced to 99 years in prison.
The Black Panthers
"The Black Panther Party" for self-
The Black Panthers were formed in
California in 1966 and was also in the
Civil Rights movement.
They believed that the revolution was
necessary in the U.S. and the nonviolent
campaign of Martin Luther King.
They were tired of the racism of the mainly
white police force and their brutality.
The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the U.S. Congress.
The Congress opposed to racial integration in public places.
It was signed by 96 Democratic from the former Confederate states.
The Manifesto document was a direct response to the Brown v. Board of Education to ruling.
The overall significance of The Southern Manifesto to the Civil Rights Movement was racial integration in public places.
The Southern Manifesto also made an immense impact in the Civil Rights Movement and the development of the country.
-June 12, 1963
-Head of NAACP in Jackson,
-Born in: Omaha, Nebraska
-why he was important: Symbol of Black Power.
-spent 6 years in prison
-Joined the Nation of Islam
-Preached black nationalism.
-broke away in 1964
-Shot and Killed Feb.1965
-protests were mainly to provoke a
-8 days into protesting MLK was arrested.
-police officers used clubs,
dogs,& high pressure hoses.
-led a boycott and campaign
One significant murder was the murder of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner.
They were all arrested. When they were released hours later, they were killed by the KKK.
The KKK burned his house down and plotted to shoot him in his sleep
Dahmer shot back and escaped, however, he died 12 hours later from inhaling too much smoke