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Copy of Transitional Bilingual Education
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Transitional Bilingual Education
What is Transitional Bilingual Education?
Transitional Bilingual Ed. has been a frequent type of bilingual education in the United States
Such students are taught briefly through their home language until they are thought to be proficient enough in the majority language to cope in mainstream education
The aim is to increase use of majority language in the classroom and decrease the home language in the classroom
Transitional bilingual education can be split into two major types:
Early Exit- Refers to a maximum of two years help using the mother tongue
Late Exit- allows around 40% of classroom teaching in the mother tongue until the 6th grade
The goal of transitional bilingual education is to help transition a student into an English-only classroom as quickly as possible.
Ensure mastery of grade-appropriate academic skills and knowledge.
Facilitate and speed up the process of learning English.
To transition from first language to second language
Usually transition to mainstream within 2-3 years
Transitional Program is a weak Bilingual Program
CALP is not fulfilled by this model, says in 2-3 years max they can gain academic language proficiency but it takes up to 7-10 years
Many ELL's don't start school in Kindergarten
If the goal is to learn English, the kids very quickly understand that means that a parallel goal is to lose the minority language.(Subtractive Bilingual)
Characteristics:Washington state defines
“Transitional Bilingual Instruction Program” as a system of instruction which:
Uses two languages, one of which is English, as a means of instruction to build upon and expand language skills to enable a student to achieve competency in English.
Teaches concepts and knowledge in the primary language of a student, while the student also acquires English language skills.
Tests students in the subject matter in English.
K.A. Baker and de Kanter (1983)
(1) Does Transitional Bilingual Education lead to better performance in English?
(2) Does Transitional Bilingual Education lead to better performance in non-language subject areas?
They didn't take into account self-esteem, employment, preservation of minority languages, value of different cultures, moral development, identity, social adjustment and personality development.
Conclusion: They found that no particular education program should be legislated for or preferred by the US Federal government and came out to support Transitional Bilingual--assimilation and integration appeared as the political preference behind this decision.
Differences between- Immersion, Early Exit, & Late Exit
Over 2,300 Spanish-Speaking students from 554 K-6th grade(In NY, NJ, FL, TX, CA)
Conclusion: Students can be provided with substantial amount of the primary language without impending their acquisition of the English language and reading skills
Criticism: Lack of data to support conclusion, didn't considered positive bilingual programs, and measurement of success is narrow.
Differential outcomes of two bilingual education programs on English language learners.
1) How much difference is there in outcomes between transitional and immersion bilingual ed.?
All of her 23 studies (are from Baker & de Kanter) concerned U.S. bilingual ed.
Conclusion: That Bilingual Ed. Programs that supported the minority language were superior in various outcomes
Criticism: Not enough studies. Not a generalized conclusion.
López, M.,G., & Tashakkori, A. (2006).
The Discourse of Transition: Teachers’ Language
Ideologies Within Transitional Bilingual
Education Programs by Palmer (2011)
In what way do TBE teachers’ discourses reflect/reinforce and simultaneously confront/counter the ideology of the program model within which they operate?
Conclusion: They expressed both sets of beliefs within the same conversation...shifting from additive to subtractive orientations toward their bilingual students as they articulated their perspectives as teachers within a T.B.E. program. At times during the interviews, teachers were briefly aware of the apparent contradictions between their theoretical support for bilingual education and their practical discourses that undermined it.
Programs provide instruction in the ELL's first language, building literacy and achievement in other content areas while teaching English.
Enrollment usually lasts three years. Quick Transition to English only classroom.
Begins in Kindergarten; learn at an early age.
Studied the academic and attitudinal effects of two programs,
2-way and transitional, on a group of 553 5th graders who entered kindergarten or first grade at varying levels of English proficiency.
1 year, six schools in southeastern United States (3 two-way-type programs, 3 transitional programs)
There was no statistically significant difference between the academic effects of the two programs.
Level of English proficiency upon entering the program effected amount of time needed to remain in program and their academic success.
Students in two-way program had a better, more positive attitude towards bilingualism.
TBE students admitted their frustration to no longer being able to communicate effectively with native speakers of their L1. Their L2 has become noticeably dominate. They also admit to frustrations over cultural maintenance.
López, M.,G., & Tashakkori, A. (2006). Differential outcomes of two bilingual education programs on english language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 30(1), 123-132,134-145,238-239. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/222020817?accountid=7113
Ovando et al (2003)
Criticizes TBE, views it as remedial, compensatory and segregated.
Perpetuating the status quo by separating language minority students from mainstream.
Thus, reproducing differences in power and progress for those with lower class status.
Academic content and cognitive complexity of remainder of curriculum weakened due to the intense focus of English acquisition.
Schools with transitional programs may have a hidden message in the staffing. People with power and prestige hold the higher up positions, such as principals and asst. principals.
Lower positions such as cooks, lunch monitors, janitors, etc., are more likely to speak minority languages.
Transitional Bilingual Education and the Socialization of Immigrants by Spencer David(1988)
The negatives of TBE, this program has been shown to have devastating consequences on the immigrant child’s cognitive development and academic development.
The program typically lasts only two to three years.
After three years or when they’re proficient in English, they are put into a regular English- only classrooms.
With their mother tongue completely terminated both as the medium of instructions and as content subject.
This program does not allow the children enough time to build CALP level skills in either their mother tongue or English.
Children put in English- only classes before they have attained the minimum linguistic threshold necessary to ensure their ability to carry out cognitively demanding academic tasks in English.
When we talk about good and effective programs, are we referring to the results that encompass academic success alone or programs that address the "whole package"?
Do you think the that the late exit program allows for enough time in the program to account for both BICS and CALPS? Why or why not?
Why do you think this is the most commonly used program in Texas?
Based on what we've learned, what do you think about the effectiveness of a program that leans students off of their native language as quickly as possible?
What do you think are the challenges faced by the teacher who receives a child in their classroom who was just exited out of the transitional bilingual program?
Rethinking the education of English language learners: Transitional bilingual education programs
Districts develop one bilingual education program design that is used for all English language learners.
Little modifications are made to the regular programs.
English language learners are consistently placed on “sink or swim” situations.
Isolates English language learners and provides basically remedial attention.
Experts pressure to excel with certain students
There are no clear guidelines for the transitions from one language level to another or from one grade to another
The negatives of TBE, this program has been shown to have devastating consequences on the immigrant child’s cognitive development and academic development. The program typically lasts only two to three years. After three years or when they’re proficient in English, they are put into a regular English- only classrooms. With their mother tongue completely terminated both as the medium of instructions and as content subject. The goal of TBE programs is to mainstream students into English-only classrooms. This program does not allow the children enough time to build CALP level skills in either their mother tongue or English. Children put in English- only classes before they have attained the minimum linguistic threshold necessary to ensure their ability to carry out cognitively demanding academic tasks in English.