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An historical timeline of Physical Education
Transcript of An historical timeline of Physical Education
as a form
of social control Dr. Thomas Arnold PHYSICAL EDUCATION TODAY The Beginning of PE Johann Bernhard Basedow(1724-1790) A German educational reformer who was the first to recognise benefits of Physical activity. First ever PE teacher He taught German Gymnastics in the first ever gymnasium in the United States The earliest recognisable rules that were recorded and
written down were in the early 19th Century by most
notably Eton school. The association football and rugby
we see now is very much based on the rules
adopted by public schools at the time "Of what importance is it in after life,
whether a boy can play well or ill at
cricket or row a boat with the precision
of a waterman" (Smith, 1810) He did this to overcome the brutal nature of the games the boys were playing, and to prevent bullying. He was an enforcer of gentlemanly conduct and did not stand for immorality Well done, but no bullying, bullying
brings the team down, the doctor (Arnold)
won't have it, and neither will I! Gentlemanly
ideals and using the analysis of a game
to recognise team values! Ling Physical Association Now, just the Physical Education association Martina Bergman-Österberg (1849-1915) This lady was the founder of the Ling Physical Association, who wanted to secure Physical Education in the National Curriculum, the centre of which her Physical Education would be based on, was Swedish gymnastics! The games which Thomas Arnold had advocated by this point were realistically only applicable to public schoolboys, and wholly irrelevant to the teachings in the Elementary school system. Characteristics Swedish Gymnastics Specific starting position Strict adherence to set patterns of movement Predetermined finishing position Every movement completed to command A demand for precision and accuracy of movement Gradually increasing degree of difficulty and exertion This style was seen as a much more holistic system to German gymnastics where focus was more militant and medical, as opposed to aesthetic and pedagogic Turned the content back to Military Drill The Model Course (1902) With the debate of German vs Swedish styles of gymnastics still brewing, the Model Course of 1902 reformed the content of Physical Education back to Military Drill. This was because in Manchester in 1899, of 11,000 volunteers to sign up for the army, only 1,200 of them were deemed fit enough! The model course was almost wholly consistent of Military drill with the occasional dumbell and barbell exercises thrown in Schools were asked to employ instructors which had been properly trained in the Army Gymnastics Course This and the German system were taught late 19th century-early 20th Century There was a widely discredited syllabus in 1904, which proved to be uninteresting and monotonous, so the 1909 syllabus aimed to rectify that The 1909 syllabus for physical exercise in Public, Elementary Schools Step Marches Dancing and skipping steps Gymnastic games Leap Frog Fox and Geese Chase Ball "For all it's General purposes the 1909
syllabus was still influenced by the tradition
of drill" (MacIntosh, 1968) 1919 Syllabus of Physical Training Key features of the syllabus A separate part of the syllabus was sent out for the under 7's Use of games for lengthy periods Older pupils were provided with appropriate games propel them to the national team, within the refines of a playground School fields and playing areas were now paid for by the Board of
Education The movement of Elementary school philosophy to Public school philosophy! 1919-1933 LOYALTY TEAM GAMES RULES COMPETITION These things came
together and it made
public schools and
elementary schools more
comparable! In 1933, a revision to the 1919 syllabus was made,
where 11+ and under 11's physical training was divided,
including free and vigorous exercise! First clear move from Military Drill 1933 syllabus for Physical Training Military drill and military terms are removed from the syllabus MAJOR TEAM GAMES.-Every High School student should be familiar with the rules and skills of the following games: Fives, tennis, volley-ball, cricket, basket-ball, lacrosse, grass hockey, baseball (soft-ball), rugby and association football (boys). The first clear mention of games is shown above! 1952-1972 1952- PT no more, PE is formed! Sport is clear- Gender specific sport Free movement emphasised- Better holistically PE is moving away from discipline Dance, gymnastics and swimming on the curriculum PE in primary public schools is adapted to incorporate
exploration and freedom Physical Education in
the late 20th Century At the end of the 20th century the debate was whether Physical Education could form part of the National Curriculum! "If PE teachers have thought that they had a fundamental
part to play in the education of every child, that they
provided an essential basis on which active life for work
and leisure could be built for everyone, then, clearly, they
have to think again" Spectator, 1975 This was a very strong argument against it,
and it wasn't the only anti PE view! The appointment of John Major in 1990 was a big influence in the funding of Physical Education, and the introduction into the National Curriculum "The government is investing £459 million to transform PE
and school sport. This funding is on top of £686 million being
invested to improve school sport facilities across England.
Together, this means that over £1 billion is being made
available for PE and school sport, and all schools in England will
benefit in some way" DfES/DCMS, 2003