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Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism

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Joseph Floyd

on 17 October 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism

Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism
The Spread of Colonial Rule
European powers conquer most of Asia and Africa
Colonies sources of raw materials, markets for Western manufactured goods

India Under the British Raj
In 1833, British East India Co. looses trade monopoly
East India Company, Mughal Empire end with 1857 Sepoy Rebellion
Mutiny by Hindu, Muslim Company soldiers, resisted foreign influence
India transferred to Crown as British Raj, Queen Victoria Empress of India
Divided into areas directly under British rule, princely states under indirect rule
Empire Building in Africa
Prior to 1800, disease deterred European colonialism in Africa
Scramble for Africa begins in 1880s
Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
By 1900, almost all Southeast Asia under colonial rule
Goals of colonialism could be realized in cooperation with local elites, through indirect rule
Direct rule over areas that actively resisted colonialism
The Philosophy of Colonialism
Social Darwinism validated might-makes-right
Moral justifications, benefits of Western modernity
Assimilation or association
The Growing European Presence in West Africa
After 1815, African slave trade limited to Brazil, Spanish Caribbean
British Navy attempts to eradicate trade, Christian missionaries, wars with Ashanti
France grants citizenship to four communes of Senegal (1848)
Settlements of ex-slaves in Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Liberia
Scramble for Africa
Before 1880, European rule limited to fringes of Africa
European rivalries lead to a Scramble for Africa
British extend rule in East Africa, French in West Africa
King Leopold of Belgium claims Congo
1884-84 Congress of Berlin convened to establish rules for dividing Africa among European powers
Joseph Floyd
The Colonial System
The Motives
Industrializing Europe needed raw materials, reliable markets
Colonialism integral to national survival
Moral justifications
The Tactics
Before 1800, European presence in Asia, Africa primarily limited to controlling trade
Industrialization required more extensive colonialism
Colonialism combined indirect and direct rule
By 1900, almost all of Africa and Asia either under colonial rule, except declining empires of China, Ottoman Empire, Persia
The Costs of Colonialism
British textiles destroy Indian textile industry
Zamindar system increased taxes
Shift from growing food to cash crops for Britain (cotton, indigo, tea, sugar)
13-16 million people die in famines from 1875-1900
Colonial Reforms
Victims of famine, 1876
School system for Indian elites
Education for women, outlawed (widow-burning)
Efforts to eradicate bandits (thugee)
First railroads in 1853
Hanoi Opera House
Colonial Takeover of Southeast Asia
Britain acquires Malaya from Dutch, in 1819, new colony at Singapore
Dutch colonial rule throughout East Indies (Indonesia)
Burma province of British India, Vietnam French protectorate by 1857
By 1900, only Thailand independent
U.S. conquers Philippines from Spain in 1898
U.S. Navy destroyed a Spanish fleet at the Battle of Manila Bay, 1898
Wars against the Muslim Moros of the southern Philippines lasted until 1913
The Nature of Colonial Rule
Rubber plantation
Saigon 'Paris of the Orient'
Imperial powers tried whenever possible to work with local elites
British rely on Muslim rulers in Malaya, direct rule over ports of Singapore, Malacca
French directly rule Cochin China (Saigon), rely on Emperors of Vietnam in Tonkin, Annam, Kings of Cambodia, Laos
Officials slow to adopt educational reforms
Few jobs for educated colonials
Europeans, Chinese controlled manufacturing, trade
Peasants work on tea, rice, rubber plantations
High taxes, migration to cities
A View of Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1803
South Africa: Bantus, Boers and British
Nowhere in Africa did European presence grow more rapidly than in the south
British seize Cape Colony in Napoleonic Wars
Wars between Cape Colony, Xhosa tribes
Boers migrate east in Great Trek (1830s-40s)
Zulus fight wars against the Boers, British
Battle of Isandlawana, 1879
Otto von Bismarck dividing Africa at Berlin Conference
Colonialism in Africa
In West Africa, British relied on indirect rule through local chiefs and kings
Cash crops (palm oil, cocoa, peanuts) grown by native planters
In East Africa (Kenya, Rhodesia) British settlement in highlands
Fertile lands set aside for whites
Boer republic of Transvaal defeats British in 1881, discovery of gold, diamonds leads to Second Boer War (1899-1902)
Boer commandos inflict heavy casualties
Women, children die in concentration camps
To placate Afrikaners, only whites vote in self-governing colony
Ivory, rubber, diamonds extracted by forced labor in Leopold's Congo Free State (1885-1908)
Death toll estimated at 10 million due to war, disease, starvation, declining births
Suez Canal
Maxim Gun
Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala, Punjab
Colonial Évolués , Belgian Congo
West African rulers touring London
Coronation of King Edward, Delhi
Indian Railroad
Battle of Rorke's Drift, 1879
The Emergence of Anti-Colonialism
Nationalism in Africa and Asia was a product of and a reaction against European colonialism
How does nationalism differ from tribal, religious, linguistic identities?
Traditional Resistance
Traditional elites resisted colonial rule
Tipu Sultan in India, Can Vuong in Vietnam
Asian, African elites chose collaboration, reform movements
Bengali Brahmins reformed, defended Hinduism
Sepoy Revolt, 1857
Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) Father of Indian Renaissance
The Balance Sheet
"White man's burden" to civilize the world
Colonies were robbed of natural resources
Colonialism introduced new technologies, brought social changes, created new nation-states
Famine, India, 1877
Indian Voters, 2008
Arab nationalism began in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine in late 1860s
Sought to unite Christians, Muslims
Simplified Arabic writing leads to increased literacy
Ibrahim al-Yaziji
(1847-1906) Translated Bible into Arabic
Zulu (1964), Battle of Rork's Drift
Burning of Kumasi, 1874
Sultan Abdulhamid II
(1876-1909)
Hejaz Railway to Mecca (1908-20)
Hamidian Massacres of Armenians, 1894
Ottoman Empire and the European Model
Tanzmiat "Restructuring" (1839-76) to centralize and modernize government of Ottoman Empire
Army modeled after France, "Young Turks" cadets
Limited political and civil liberties, partial secularization of the law, first constitution
After Crimean War (1854-56) Ottoman Empire dependent on British and French loans
Declining revenues, few exports
Lithograph celebrating 1876 constitution
Persia under the Qajar dynasty
Persia (Iran) ruled by Qajar dynasty
Naser al-Din Shah (1848-96) attempts centralizing, modernizing reforms; roads, telegraph, limits power of clergy, tours Europe
Russian expansion in Caucasus, central Asia, British merchants dominate Persian economy
1905-07 Constitutional Revolution
British, Russian spheres of influence
Naser al-Din Shah
First Majils (Parliament)
Russian Cossacks executing members of the Persian constitutional government, 1908
The Middle East in the Age of European imperialism
Muslim empires seek to modernize to avoid European conquest
Efforts to adopt Western technology, limited reforms
Decline of Persia under Qajar rule, 1907 Partition
Buildings in Delhi destroyed during the Sepoy Rebellion
Execution of Sepoy Rebels
Coffee plantation, Kenya from Out of Africa (1985)
Reign 1900-38, British Army General in World War I, built palaces, monorail railroad, patron of cricket
Out of Africa (1985) based on the autobiography of Baronness Karen von Blixen, "White Highlands," British East Africa (Kenya)
King Mongkut (1851-68) and Prince Chulalongkorn in uniform
Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) established relations with Britain and France. Cultural reforms embrace Western science, technology
Britain fought 18-year colonial war (1881-1899) against the Mahdists, an Islamic religious movement in Sudan
French expedition, British-Egyptian force face off in Fashoda Incident, France withdraws
British soldiers, with Maxim guns, defeat Mahdist army at the Battle of Omdurman (1898)
Menelik II (1889-1913) modernizes Ethiopia, conquers non-Christian Oromo, Somali
Italians annex Eritrea, invasion of Ethiopia defeated at Adawa in 1896, recognition of Ethiopia's independence
Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first President of Liberia (1848-56)
Liberia founded by American Colonization Society, settled by free and ex-slave Black Americans from the United States
Flag of Liberia
British battling Boers
Cecil Rhodes
Suez Canal construction
The discovery of oil in 1908 led to the creation of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (BP)
Ottoman Military March, late 19th century
British forces arriving in Madalay, Burma, 1885
East India Co. seized territory from kingdom of Burma in 1826 and 1852. British conquered Burma in 1885
Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1805-48) modernized army, public education, factories
In 1854 French company contracted to build Suez Canal, completed in 1869
Egypt in debt, British protectorate in 1882
France seizes Algiers in 1830, wars against Algerians, one-third die due to war, disease
Europeans settle coastal region
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
King Shaka (1816-28)
The rise of Shaka's militaristic Zulu Kingdom led to the Mfecane (crushing), warfare and refugees throughout southern African
Weenen Massacre, 1838
A bush fight, Third Anglo-Ashanti War
In 1860s-80s Russia conquered emirates and khanates of southern Turkestan
British block expansion toward Afghanistan
Battle of Zatcha, Algeria 1849
Indochine (1992)
Famine in British India
Surprise Attack against Emir of Bukhara, V. Vasily (1871)
Die Groot Trek (Great Trek)
Imperialist Shadows Over the Nile and North Africa
Arab Merchants and European Missionaries in East Africa
Sultan of Oman establishes capital on island of Zanzibar in 1840
Arab traders acquire gold, ivory, slaves
Christian missionary David Livingstone sought to end slave trade, explores interior of Africa
Slave market, Zanzibar
Livingstone on Zambezi, 1860
Departure of the Fingoes (Fengu), 1840
Battle of Blood River (1838)
Casualties of the Filipino-American War, 1899-1902
Stephen Benson, second President of Liberia (1856-64)
Maj. Marchand's trek across Africa
"No Fight" French poodle begs for scraps from British bulldog
Aceh War (1873-1901) Longest of 19th cent. wars consolidating Dutch rule
Sultan Abdulhamid II abolishes Constitution Pan-Islamism to counter nationalism
Allies with Germany
Russia conquers Caucasus (1864)
Circassian Genocide, 400-600,000 dead
Refugees in Ottoman Empire
Turks, Kurds, Circassians massacre 80-100,000 Christian Armenians in 1893-94
Ethnic cleansing
Mountaineers leave the aul
Circassian Refugees, 1872
Jean-Leon Gerome, Circassian Girl, 1876
News of Caucasian Wars and idealized Circassian beauties inspired pseudo-scientific theories of Caucasian race
Basotho King Moeshoehshe of Lesotho (1822-70)
Migrations of Dutch-speaking Afrikaners (Boers) led to wars with the Zulus
Republics of Orange Free State, Transvaal in 1850s
Boer children, British concentration camp
Nine Xhosa Wars last 100 years (1779-1879)
Cattle-killing movement (1856) sought to bring back Xhosa dead
Prophetess Nongqawuse
Xhosa warriors, 1851
Yaa Asantewaa, 1901
Five Anglo-Ashanti Wars (1829-1901) Ashanti becomes part of Gold Coast
Sokoto Caliphate founded 1809 during Fulani Jihads, rules northern Nigeria, 10 million people by 1830
Germans kill 100,000 Herero, 10,000 Nama in genocidal campaign of racial extermination, Herero Wars 1904-07
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