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Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism

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Joseph Floyd

on 20 August 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism

Chapter 21: The High Tide of Imperialism
The Spread of Colonial Rule
New relationship between Europe and Asia and Africa
Colonies sources of raw materials, markets for Western manufactured goods

India Under the British Raj
In 1833, British East India Co. looses trade monopoly
East India Company and Mughal Empire end with 1857 Sepoy Rebellion
India transferred to Crown as British Raj, Queen Victoria Empress of India
Divided into areas directly under British rule, princely states under indirect rule
Empire Building in Africa
Prior to 1800, disease deterred European colonialism in Africa
Industrialization, nationalism incentives for imperialism
Scramble for Africa begins in 1880s
Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
By 1900, almost all Southeast Asia under colonial rule
Divided between rival empires
Goals of colonialism could be realized in cooperation with local elites, through indirect rule
Direct rule over areas that actively resisted colonialism
The Philosophy of Colonialism
Social Darwinism validated might-makes-right
Moral justifications, benefits of Western modernity
Assimilation or association
The Growing European Presence in West Africa
After 1815, African slave trade limited to Brazil, Spanish Caribbean
British Navy attempts to eradicate trade, Christian missionaries, wars with Ashanti Empire
Settlements of ex-slaves in Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Liberia
Scramble for Africa
By 1880, European rule limited to fringes of Africa
European rivalries leads to a Scramble for Africa
British extend rule in East Africa, French in West Africa
King Leopold of Belgium claims Congo
1884-84 Congress of Berlin convened to establish rules for dividing Africa among European powers
Joseph Floyd
The Colonial System
The Motives
Industrializing Europe needed raw materials, reliable markets
Colonialism integral to national survival
Moral justifications
The Tactics
Before 1800, European presence in Asia, Africa limited to controlling trade
Industrialization required more extensive colonialism
Colonialism combined indirect and direct rule
By 1900, almost all of Africa or Asia either under colonial rule, except empires on verge of collapse, China, Ottoman Empire, Persia
The Costs of Colonialism
Imports of British textiles destroy Indian textile industry
Zamindar system increased taxes
Shift from growing food to cash crops for Britain (cotton, indigo, tea, sugar)
13-16 million people die in famines from 1875-1900
Colonial Reforms
Victims of famine, 1876
School system for Indian elites
Education for women, outlawed (widow-burning)
Efforts to eradicate bandits
First railroads in 1853
Hanoi Opera House
Colonial Takeover of Southeast Asia
Britain acquires Malaya from Dutch, in 1819, new colony at Singapore
Burma province of British India, Vietnam French protectorate by 1857
Dutch colonial rule throughout East Indies
By 1900, only Thailand independent, buffer between British Burma, French Indochina
U.S. conquers Philippines from Spain in 1898
U.S. Navy destroyed a Spanish fleet at the Battle of Manila Bay, 1898
Wars against the Muslim Moros of the southern Philippines lasted until 1913
The Nature of Colonial Rule
Rubber plantation
Saigon 'Paris of the Orient'
In Southeast Asia economic profit primary aim
Imperial powers tried whenever possible to work with local elites
British rely on Muslim rulers in Malaya, direct rule over ports of Singapore, Malacca
French directly rule Cochin China (Saigon), protectorate in northern Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Officials slow to adopt educational reforms
Few jobs for educated colonials
Europeans, Chinese controlled manufacturing, trade
Peasants work on tea, rice, rubber plantations
High taxes, migration to cities
A View of Freetown, Sierra Leon, 1803
South Africa: Bantus, Boers and British
Nowhere in Africa did the European presence grow more rapidly than in the south
Boers, Afrikaans-speaking farmers, migrate east
Wars between Cape Colony, Xhosa tribes
British seize Cape Colony in Napoleonic Wars
Boers flee in Great Trek (1830s-40s), establish independent republics
Zulus fight wars against the Boers, British
Battle of Isandlawana, 1879
Otto von Bismarck dividing Africa at Berlin Conference
Battle of Adwa, 1896
Colonialism in Africa
In West Africa, British relied on indirect rule through local chiefs, kings
In East Africa (Kenya, Rhodesia) European settlement in highlands
Fertile lands set aside for whites
Discovery of gold and diamonds in Boer republic of Transvaal leads to Boer War (1899-1902)
Boer commandos inflict heavy casualties, women, children die in concentration camps
To placate Afrikaners, British agreed only whites would vote in self-governing colony
Ivory, rubber, diamonds were extracted by forced labor in Leopold's Congo Free State (1885-1908)
Death toll estimated at 10 million
Suez Canal
Maxim Gun
Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala, Punjab
Colonial evoluees
West African rulers touring London
Coronation of King Edward, Delhi
Indian Railroad
Battle of Rorke's Drift, 1879
The Emergence of Anti-Colonialism
Nationalism in Africa and Asia was a product of and a reaction against European colonialism
How does nationalism differ from tribal, religious, linguistic identities?
Traditional Resistance
Traditional elites resisted colonial rule, Tipu Sultan in India, Can Vuong in Vietnam
Asian, African elites chose collaboration, reform movements
Bengali Brahmins reformed, defended Hinduism
Sepoy Revolt, 1857
Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) Father of Indian Renaissance
The Balance Sheet
"White man's burden" to civilize the world
Colonies were robbed of natural resources
Colonialism introduced new technologies, brought social changes, created new nation-states
Famine, India, 1877
Indian Voters, 2008
Arab nationalism began in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine in late 1860s
Sought to unite Christians, Muslims
Simplified Arabic writing leads to increased literacy
Ibrahim al-Yaziji

Zulu (1964), Battle of Roark's Drift
Conquest of Ashanti, 1874
Sultan Abdulhamid II
Hejaz Railway
Built by the Ottomans with German aid
Massacres of Armenians, 1894
Sati (widow-burning)
Ottoman Empire and the European Model
Tanzmiat reforms (1839-76) to centralize and modernize the government of the Ottoman Empire
Lead to first constitution
Unable to counter nationalism
Ottoman Empire dependent on British and French loans
Postcard celebrating 1876 constitution
Persia under the Qajar dynasty
Persia (Iran) ruled by Qajar dynasty
Naser al-Din Shah (1848-96) attempts Westernizing reforms
Russian expansion in central Asia, British merchants dominate Persian economy
1905-07 Constitutional Revolution
Divided into British, Russian spheres of influence
Naser al-din
First Majils (Parliament)
Russian Cossacks executing members of the Persian constitutional government, 1908
The Middle East in the Age of European imperialism
Muslim empires seek to modernize to avoid European conquest
Efforts to adopt Western technology, limited reforms
Decline of Persia under Qajar rule, 1907 Partition
Buildings destroyed during the Sepoy Rebellion, a mutiny by East India Co. soldiers
Execution of Sepoy Rebels
Coffee plantation, Kenya from Out of Africa (1985)
Reign 1900-38, British Army General in World War I, built palaces, monorail railroad, patron of cricket
Out of Africa (1985) based on the autobiography of Baronness Karen von Blixen
King Mongkut (1851-68) and Prince Chulalongkorn in uniform
Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) established relations with Britain and France. Its rulers embraced Western innovations
Britain fought an 18-year colonial war (1881-1899) against the Mahdists, an Islamic religious movement in Egyptian-ruled Sudan
British soldiers, with Maxim guns, defeat Mahdist army at the Battle of Omdurman (1898)
Italian invasion of Ethiopia defeated in 1896, recognition of Ethiopia's independence
Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first President of Liberia (1848-56)
Liberia settled by free African-Americans and ex-slaves from the United States
Republic of Liberia declared independence in 1847
Flag of Liberia
British Concentration camp
British battling Boers
Cecil Rhodes
Suez Canal construction
The discovery of oil in 1908 led to the creation of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (BP)
Ottoman Military March, late 19th century
British forces arriving in Madalay, Burma, 1885
East India Co. seized territory from kingdom of Burma in 1826 and 1852. British conquered Burma in 1885
Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1805-48) modernized army, public education, factories
In 1854 French company contracted to build Suez Canal, completed in 1869
Egypt in debt, British protectorate in 1882
France seizes Algiers in 1830, wars against Algerian tribes
Europeans settle coastal region
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
King Shaka (1816-28)
Shaka's militaristic Zulu Kingdom led to the Mfecane (crushing) a wave of warfare and refugees throughout southern African
Weenen Massacre, 1838
A bush fight, Third Anglo-Ashanti War
Great Trek
In 1860s-80s Russia conquered southern Turkestan, part of Greater Iran
British block expansion toward Afghanistan
Battle of Zatcha, Algeria 1849
Indochine (1992)
Famine in British India
Surprise Attack against Emir of Bukhara, V. Vasily (1871)
Imperialist Shadow Over the Nile
Arab Merchants and European Missionaries in East Africa
Sultan of Oman establishes capital on island of Zanzibar in 1840
Arab traders acquire gold, ivory, slaves
Christian missionary David Livingstone seeks to end slave trade, explores interior of Africa
Slave market, Zanzibar
Livingstone on Zambezi, 1860
Migration of the Fengu,
Battle of Blood River (1838)
Casualties of the Filipino-American War, 1899-1902
Full transcript