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Decision Making

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Eva Kirsch

on 17 May 2011

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Transcript of Decision Making

1: Individual vs. Group
decision Making 3: Factors facilitating & hindering
effective group decisions 4: Effective Decision making * Process gain * Correction of other´s errors * Social Facilitation * Group polarization * Involvement & Commitment * Changed behavior and attitudes * Type of task * Potential group productivity DECISION MAKING 1: authority
without group discussion 2: expert 3: averaging individual´s opinions 4: authority after group discussion 5: minority 6: majority 7: Consensus Decisions made by... * Lack of Maturity * Social loafing * Free riding * "Not being a sucker" * Groupthink and defensive Avoidance * Poor Conflict management * Egocentrism * Lack of Heterogenity * Interference or Production Blocking * Group size * Relevant skills * Identifying and defining problem or issue * Considering alternative solutions * Barrier * Second Chance meeting Exercise 1:
Candy in a Jar Exercise 3:
Water transport Exercise 2:
Moon disaster Exercise 4:
Night in Palermo SUMMARY 2: Methods of Decision
making by Edda Wrasse &
Mareike Kirsch 17.05.2011 Links to the videos: 12 ANGRY MEN: GROUPTHINK
youtube.com/watch?v=JOSyyJWC-YI&NR=1 http://www. Elevator: Groupthink
.youtube.com/watch?v=TS7P-eo-COo Minority influence:
.youtube.com/watch?v=vhRY-oxL8xk&NR=1 Discussion * Uncritical dominant response "Consense fish" 1 2 3 4 5 Learning goals: It is more efficient to make a decision as an individual or as a group? What is the best way/ method in the process of decision making? What are potential problems in decision making? What is decision making? Exercise 4:
Bomb Shelter Doctor
Hippy married couple addicted to drugs
Single pregant woman, with child
Army general with Psychiatric problems
Elderly woman
Disabled person
Dole bludger Citizen Murderer Detective THE WAY IS THE GOAL
-GANDHI = mental processes resulting in the
selection of a course of action
among several alternative scenarios. It's not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are.
- Roy Disney Item Ranking NASA's Reasoning

1) tanks of Oxygen
Most pressing survival need (weight is not a factor since gravity is one-sixth of the Earth's -- each tank would weigh only about 17 lbs. on the moon)
2) 20 litres of water
Needed for replacement of tremendous liquid loss on the light side Signal flares
3) Stellar map
Primary means of navigation – star patterns appear essentially identical on the moon as on Earth
4) Food concentrate
Efficient means of supplying energy Requirements
5) Solar-powered FM receiver-transmitter
For communication with mother ship (but FM requires line-of-sight transmission and can only be used over short ranges)
6) 50 feet of nylon rope
Useful in scaling cliffs and tying injured Together
7) First aid kit, including injection needle
Needles connected to vials of vitamins, medicines, etc. will fit special aperture in NASA space suit
8) Parachute silk
Protection from the sun's rays
9) Two 100 lb. Self-inflating life raft
CO2 bottle in military raft may be used for propulsion
10) Signal flares
Use as distress signal when the mother ship is sighted
11) Two .45 calibre pistols
Possible means of self-propulsion
12) One case of dehydrated Milk
Bulkier duplication of food concentrate
13) Portable heating unit
Not needed unless on the dark side
14) Magnetic compass
The magnetic field on the moon is not polarized, so it's worthless for navigation
15) Box of matches
Virtually worthless -- there's no oxygen on the moon to sustain combustion + Drawing * division of tasks: a) divisible VS. unitary
b) maximizing VS. optimizing * unitary tasks: 1) disjunctive
2) conjunctive
3) additive
4) discretionary Groups: a) 46 47 47 49
b) 44 45 49 53
c) 45 45 46 51 Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor: normative influence
informational influences
social identification * small Example of Process gain:
how many details can you remember? * papal conclave Task: rank order the items in terms of their importance for your crew in allowing you to reach the rendezvous point. Your Ranking NASA Ranking
_______ Box of matches _______
_______ Food concentrate _______
_______ 50 feet of nylon rope _______
_______ Parachute silk _______
_______ Portable heating unit _______
_______ Two .45 caliber pistols _______
_______ One case of dehydrated milk _______
_______ Two 100 lb. tanks of oxygen _______
_______ Stellar map _______
_______ Self-inflating life raft _______
_______ Magnetic compass _______
_______ 20 liters of water _______
_______ Signal flares _______
_______ First aid kit, including injection needle _______
_______ Solar-powered FM receiver-transmitter _______ increased psychological arousal
attentional temptation
evaluation apprehension task-work skills
group-work skills Problem: important, solvable, urgent * Evaluation failure to identify a proper alternative
premature elimination
pressure of conformity highly cohesive
isolated from outside criticism
directive leader
hopeless to find alternative solution Groupthink is promoted when group is: concurrence- seeking tendency GROUPTHINK Self-censorship
Illusion of unanimity
direct preassure on dissenters
Mind guards Illusion of invulnerability
Illusion of morality
Stereotyping / moral exclusion Rules:
everyone has to touch the cloth
no one touches the glass Thank you for your attention Send over two wolves.
Bring one back.
Send over two wolves.
Bring one back.
Send over two chicks.
Bring a wolf and a chick back.
Send over two chicks.
Bring a wolf back.
Send over two wolves.
Bring one back.
Send over the last two wolves. RIVER on boat must alway be
one animal the chicks may never
be fewer than wolves
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