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America's Founding Documents

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by

Ben Bailey

on 12 October 2016

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Transcript of America's Founding Documents

Recalls the theories of the Magna Carta
The Mayflower Compact
The Philosophy of John Locke
The thoughts and arguments of Colonists like Thomas Paine
A dangerous document
Declaration
of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Submitted to Ben Franklin/John Adams
"Committee of Five"
Submitted to Congress
Worked on July 3rd-4th
Originally addressed slavery issue
America's Founding
Three Documents, One Nation
How do the Founding Ideals make a country?
Introduction & Thesis Statement:
Main Arguments:
"Grievances"
All the things King George III was doing against them
Taxes
Abuses of the Red Coats/War
No Representation
Conclusion
We've done...
We expect...
We realize this is a death sentence
We sign our names
Boston Massacre, 1770
1754-1763, French & Indian War
1763-1774; Various acts and taxes
Ratification of the Constitution, 1787-1788
Boston Tea Party, 1773
1775
~Battle of Lexington & Concorde
~Boston: Bunker Hill
1776, July 4th; Declaration of Independence from Great Britain
1776, Washington Crossess the Deleware on Christmas Night
1777
~Battle of Saratoga
~The French enter the war
1778-1780; British Campaign in the South
1781
~American Articles of Confederation are Adopted by the States
~British Surrender at Yorktown, war is over.
1782; British leave the South
1783; Peace Treaty of Paris Signed
Executive
Legislative
Judicial
Runs the country, executes the laws, proposes new laws, signs or vetos new laws, negotiates with other countries....
Appoints the "Cabinet" and close advisors to run the 15 offices under the executive office:
Can appoint judges, set agenda for country, and runs the military as "CinC"
POTUS
Write and pass new laws, set taxes, budget for country and military....
Can declare war, ratify treaties with other countries, participate in negotiations...
Represent the people of the States, negotiate on their behalf.
Bicameral Legislature
House of Representatives
Senate
Elected every 2 years
25 years old or older
Live in the state they represent
A citizen of the USA for 7+ years
The number in the House changes with Population in the States
The Speaker of the House is 3rd in line for President
Senators elected every 6 years
30 years or older
Live in the state they represent
Citizen of USA for 9+ years
Only two from each state
Makes judgements on whether any one part of the government is acting according to the Constitution.
Supreme Court
of the
United States
Must be 35 or older and born in the USA
The Bill of Rights
The Constitution of the United States:
Purpose:
ex post Facto:
article 1:10
"After the Fact"
Direct result of abuse from King
No bill of Attainer:
Article 1:10
No punishment w/o due process of law
Direct result of abuse from King
Habeas Corpus:
Article 1:9
"have the body"
No arrest without evidence
No holding without review
The Congress
of the
United States
Argument
The Federalists
The Anti-Federalists
Constitution is good enough, protects rights through limits on government power.
Not good enough; specific rights must be listed or they will be abused.
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Amendment I
Amendment II
Amendment IV
Amendment V
Settle cases between the states.
Interprets the Constitution as it applies to real life.
Executive
Legislative
Judicial
Checks
&
Balances
REVIEW:
Constitution written to replace the Articles of Confederation
Strong government, but with split powers
Three branches, each having a Check or Balance over the other two.
Legislative, Executive, Judicial
Constitution can be amended
First 10 = Bill of Rights = What the government cannot do to you, what you can do in spite of the government.
Split again into two parts
Create Laws
Runs this place
Elected by the people via the "Electoral College"
The Court System
Interpret the Constitution
Decide when the government has broken the rules
To set up the FEDERAL Government over the States
Tells each part of the Government what is can, and cannot do.
Lists only THREE personal protections.
Divided into "chapters" by ARTICLE : SECTION : CLAUSE
Department of Defense, Department of Justice, Department of the Interior, State Department...
We the People of the United States,
in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
PURPOSE
~ To 'Secure' man's Natural Rights against the power of the government.
~ Tells what the government CAN'T do to you, or make you do.
~ Many parts of it are directly related to things the King did to the Colonists
~ The most familiar part of the Constitution, and the part that is challenged in court every day.
How is it possible for there to be different interpretations of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights?
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
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