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Lesson 9-11 Infomation Processing Welford & Whiting

AS OCR Acquiring Movement Skills
by

Joe Crane

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Lesson 9-11 Infomation Processing Welford & Whiting

Information Processing
PPQ
Specification
Basic information processing models
Welford & Whitings models
•To
Describe

Welford’s model
(display; sensory information; sense organs; perceptual mechanism; effector mechanism; response and feedback);

• To
Describe

Whiting’s model
(display; receptor systems; perceptual mechanism; translatory mechanisms; output, feedback);

• To
Apply
these
models
to the
learning and performance of physical activities.
Whitings model
Welford's model
Input:
The surroundings or environment that the performer is in. Some of this information generated by the display will be noticed by the performer and will stimulate the sensory systems.
Perceptual Mechanisms
:

DCR- Detection – Comparison - Recognition
Involves interpretation/judgement or making sense of the situation/involves the memory process e.g. recognise the object as a ball/Decision making or formulating a motor plan e.g. decision to move hands together to catch the ball.
Selective attention occurs
Translatory Mechanisms:
This is where decision making occurs and comparisons made to what is stored in your memory.
It uses the information gathered from the environment and decides upon the correct response/motor programme that needs to be put into action.
Effector Mechanisms:
The motor programme is put into action by sending impulses via the nervous system to the appropriate muscles.
Feedback:
Intrinsic feedback involves kinaesthesis/information from proprioceptors/the feeling of movement that informs future decisions. Eg the performer feels that the movement is correct and that the ball is caught.
Extrinsic feedback involves environmental information/knowledge of results/information from someone else eg the coach tells the performer that the catch has been made correctly.
Receptor systems
Muscular systems
Display Sense Perceptual Effector Muscular response
organs mechanisms mechanisms contractions
Intrinsic Feedback
Extrinsic Feedback
Input
Stimulus identification
Response selection
Response programming
Output
Key points:
Both models have the same basic process of information processing.
Welford's model is a little more complicated than whitings
A simplified model
Key stages:
Display:
The surroundings or environment that the performer is in. Some of this information generated by the display will be noticed by the performer and will stimulate the sensory systems.
Sense organs:
Involves all environmental stimuli – e.g. other players/the ball.
Receive the stimuli/include vision/audition and proprioception(Equilibrium/Touch/Kinaesthesis) e.g. eyes see the ball coming.
Perceptual mechanisms:
DCR- Detection – Comparison - Recognition
Involves interpretation/judgement of the information or making sense of the situation/involves the memory process e.g. recognise the object as a ball
Decision making
: Deciding upon or formulating a motor plan e.g. decision to move hands together to catch the ball.
Effector control/mechanisms:
The motor programme is put into action. It involves transferring information from the brain to the muscles e.g. the decision to catch the ball is sent via nervous system to the muscles in the arms.
Muscular contractions (effectors):
The muscles that contract to bring about the motor porgramme.
Response:
The action that takes place
Feedback:
Intrinsic feedback involves kinaesthesis/information from proprioceptors/the feeling of movement that informs future decisions. Eg the performer feels that the movement is correct and that the ball is caught.
Extrinsic feedback involves environmental information/knowledge of results/information from someone else eg the coach tells the performer that the catch has been made correctly.
Selective attention is an important part of the information processing system. Identify where selective attention occurs during information processing and explain how it aids performance. (3 marks)
Outline Whitings model of information processing and explain how the perceptual mechanism can affect the performance of physical activities. (6)
INPUT
DECISION MAKING
OUTPUT
FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK
Full transcript