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Kathy Pham

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Antibacterials

Importance of Patient Compliance
Taking antibiotics comes with a risk
Many people are
to Penicillin
Symptoms can include skin rashes, fevers, and in serious cases anaphylactic shock
Some, such as
, is carcinogenic at high concentrations
Others, like
, have toxic side effects such as deafness and kidney trouble
Penicillin is
relatively safe
with high selective toxicity but
can be dangerous
if used incorrectly
Patients must have
strict adherence
to recommended treatment in order for treatment to be effective
For TB this is very important since the treatment is very difficult requiring long courses of multiple antibiotics
Effect of Penicillin Overprescription
Works Cited
Historical Development
of Penicillin
1920s-The effects of penicillin was discovered by a bacteriologist named
Alexander Fleming

Howard Florey

demonstrated the curative effects it had in human studies
-microbes started becoming resistant to the drug
Ernst Boris Chain
who was a student of howard isolated and purified penicillin

1940s- Penicillin was being mass produced by companies

How Penicillin Work

Transpeptidase "Penicillin Binding Proteins"
This enzyme is what forms the cross links that bind the peptides. These links bind on alternating sugar bone structures. As these structures build up, the cell wall is formed.
Sugar backbone made up of alternating NAG(N-acetylglcosamine) and NAM(N-acetylmuramic acid). Peptides are binded to NAM.
Anti-bacterials such as Penicillin

invade the Peptidoglycan (sugar, amino acid) structure
of the cell wall and

capture the
PBP's. This breaks weakens the cell wall and prevents it from maintaining it's shape.
Water comes in and destroys the rest of the cell by bursting.

Through mitosis, cells divide and more good cells can come.
When Penicillin destroys the bad ones and the bacteria, the body will function back to normal again.

( the penicillin drug is only effective against microorganism that produce a cell wall)

Outline the
Historical Development of Penicillin
How Penicillin Work
and Discuss the
Effects of Modifying the Side-Chain
Discuss and Explain the
Importance of Patient Compliance
and the
Effect of Penicillin Overprescription
TOK Thought
Effects of Modifying the Side-Chain
The R group is a benzyl group. Modifying this Side-Chain allows it for different activities. Penicillin O and S were semisynthesized but it wasn't as good as Penicillin V, which is acid stable.
Benzyl Group
: Acts as a protective group for alcohol. Derived from toluene. Hydrocarbon functional group.
It can be taken orally.
It can be taken at home.
It can be adapted to different situations.
American Chemical Society International Historic Chemical Landmarks. Discovery and Development of Penicillin. http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/flemingpen
"D6 Antibacterials ." StudyBlue. StudyBlue Inc., 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/d6-antibacterials/deck/8479688>.
"history of medicine." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. <http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/110313#35672.toc>.
"IB Chemistry Review." blogspot.com. Blogger, n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <http://ibchemistry-review.blogspot.com/p/option-d-drugs-and-medicines.html>.
Kassem, Noreem. "How Does Penicillin Work?." Suite. Noreem Kassem, 17 Aug. 2009. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <https://suite.io/noreen-kassem/24462f8>.
"penicillin." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. <http://school.eb.com/levels/middle/article/600650>.
Talbot, Christopher, Richard Harwood, and Christopher Coates. "24.6 Antibacterials." HodderPlus Chemistry. Hodder Education, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <http://www.hodderplus.co.uk/ibchemistry/private/Chapter24_p813-865.pdf>.
American Chemical Society International Historic Chemical Landmarks. Discovery and Development of Penicillin. h
Fathers of Penicillin
An antibacterial is
an agent that will destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria
Synonymous with antibiotic except antibiotics active against fungi, parasites, and bacteria
Neither are effective against viruses
An anti-cancer drug, cisplatin was found under the measure of serendipitous events. An american chemist Barrentt Rosenberg while testing the effects of an electric field and growth of bacteria, during the experiment he noticed that cisplatin was being produced from the chemical reaction between the electrode and the nutrients in the solution.
Serendipity plays the roles of giving a chance for someone to be able and use it as an opportunity and create something that is revolutionary.
It can be spread to allow others to use what newly found information that could be learned from this mistake. Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Florey were able to go into more depth about a forgotten experiment and manage to show it capabilities.
What part does
play in scientific
What does serendipity mean?
Serendipity means the occurrence and development of
events by chance
in a happy or beneficial way
When people take penicillin for a minor bacterial infection, they are increasing the chances of a
resistant strain
When the non-resistant bacteria are destroyed, the resistant ones that were formed are able to multiply due to a
lack of competition
mutation in bacterial DNA
can form -prevents the uptake of penicillin into the space between the cell wall and cell membrane
Enzymes called
can be produced -Break down the penicillin molecule -Survive courses of Penicillin and other related drugs -Penicillin-resistant strain is formed
Chemists have developed other penicillins
(where the active part of the molecule is retained, but the side chain is changed)
to combat this problem. However, bacteria multiply and mutate very fast, and so new antibiotics must be developed, to be effective against even more resistant “super-bugs”.

Antibiotics, namely Penicillin, are given to farmed animals to prevent the risk of diseases. -Cows, pigs, chicken, shrimp
They are passed on through meat and dairy products to humans, causing the
development of more resistant bacteria
Penicillin quickly became a
widely used
antibiotic against multiple bacteria. -infected wounds -sexually transmitted diseases
However, this led to many situations where it was
Penicillin-resistant bacteria
began to appear
The use of penicillin in
animal feedstock
also contributes to the development of resistant bacteria.
Penicillin was
one of the first antibiotics and one of the most effective drugs at the time
It was used in WWII to help treat
infected wounds
Also used to treat
that were common soldiers
Mainly used for
bacterial infections
and treating
another example of serendipity in the field of science
The laboratory curiosity
Although Fleming was the one who discovered the drug it was the research that Howard and Ernst did at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology at Oxford University to make penicillin a life saving drug

1939 was when they first worked on purifying the drug

the first recipients
the first test for penicillin were being used on mice and rats

on February 12 1941 the first human to be treated with penicillin would have make an incredible recovery only to die a few days later when supplies of the drug ran out.
Improvements were shown with other patients tested and plans came for the drug for british troops on the battlefield
an unexpected welcome home gift
September 3, 1928 Fleming returned from the holiday and found a unusual bacteria that would appear among some colonies of Staphylococcus-a disease that can cause boils, sore throat and abscesses.

June 1929 Fleming would report his findings in a british journal
A penicillin mold founded in a container that was containing Staphylococcus this is most like what Fleming found when returning from holiday
Types of Antibiotics:
Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
-active against a wide range of bacterial diseases or strains
Examples: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Streptomycin, Gentamicin, and Erythromycin
Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics
-active against only a small range of bacterial diseases or strains
Examples: Penicillin G, Polymycin and Bacitracin
Penicillin G
Penicillin V
Penicillin O
: an enzyme in bacteria that can hydrolyse Penicillin. It hydrolyses the beta-lactam ring in Penicillin.

Beta-lactam ring
: The nitrogen is attached to 3 carbons single-bonded.

: adding of water to separate the chemical bonds made by the carbohydrates.
Iris Wong, Michael Aiyedun, Kathy Pham, Danny George
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