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Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site

A brief presentation of the research conducted on the Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site.
by

Peter Johnson

on 14 November 2013

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Transcript of Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site

?
Giant Ripples:
50 feet tall and 200 feet long
Researching an Ancient Colombian Mammoth Paleontological Site
Entire populations
of Mammoths
were swept up
and deposited on
the lake shores.
Mammoths became
Extinct due to this.
Remember this?
Most of those mammoths were not buried and decayed away.
Luckily some mammoths were buried and preserved. We have found some of these mammoths .
We are
researching the
soil around and above the
Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site to see if the Mammoth was carried there by the floods, or if it lived and died at that site.
Frost
Wedging
Rainshadow Effect
Windward (Wet) Leeward (Dry)
Learning Objectives
Reinforcement of Scientific Method
Exploration of Paleontological Dig Site
Investigation of standard soil particle size analysis
Comprehension of Relevant Vocabulary

House Sized Boulders
made of a non-native rock type
Glacial Erratic
Background Information
meander
Erosion
Deposition
Problem:
Particle sizes can help to delineate between the different geologic events that occurred in the past
Observation
Hypothesis
We can get a more detailed history of the rock layer if we analyze the particle size distribution of each layer.
Can stratigraphic sediment determine the
paleontological depositional history (number of
flooding and windblown events, layering, and size
deposition based on velocity ) surrounding the Coyote Canyon Mammoth Site
Experiments:
Samples will be taken from the field
Each field sample will have 3 samples taken from it:
1. 25g. for Hydrometer to determine particle size distribution
2. 40g. to be placed in oven to determine moisture content
3. 10g. for analysis by partics Size Distribution Analyzer LA-950V2
Each Sample must be carefully labeled and measured ...don't lean on the counter!
Hydrometer...
measure density of water
particles of our field sample suspended in water change the density of the water
large particles settle out of the water quicker than the smaller particles
A solution of RO water (Reverse Osmosis) and Hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) was placed with our sample and mixed for 24 hours at 175 PRM.
After completely transferring the sample solution
to the hydrometer cylinder using a squirt bottle, we shake the cylinder for at least 1 minute, set the hydrometer down and start timer.
Take temperature and density
of blank, or control, at beginning, end
and at periodic intervals
Density will be measured using hydrometer
at .5,1,3,10,30,60,90,120,1440 second intervals
Foam, or 'bubbles', will be removed using 1-Pentanol amyl alcohol
Hydrometer
If they were carried by flood waters they would be surrounded by larger sediments formed by an Ice Age Floe; if they lived and died at that site they would be surrounded by smaller
wind blown
sediments
LASER ANALYSIS
1st step
Finished
2nd step
Spark
Last step
Start
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Prepare samples and shake overnight!
Scientists like to compare data; we will conduct laser analysis and compare with out Hydrometer data!
Sediments are divided using 53 micrometer sieve; smaller sediments are added to RO water (do you remember what that means?)
Using a syringe with smaller samples, and a scoopula for larger sediments, samples are added to Partica Laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer.
Data from both experiments will be collected for analysis!
Sieve is placed in oven to dry sediments for accurate mass measurement
Data Analysis
Conclusions
(In a paleontological dig the surrounding
environment as well as the fossils
are examined)
The Coyote Canyon Colombian Mammoth
is 17,450 +/- 50 years old!
1. Even scientists that work in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory use the scientific method! By using the scientific method we were able to see similar results with both the hydrometer/sieve and the laser methods. Scientists collaborate! By working together we faced challenges, and found solutions.

2. Science is everywhere!!
Think about the world around you and become a part of it...
you could be a ... paleontologist...a geologist...a paleoecologist, or a...?????? what ever you want to be you can be!

3. Finally, we now know that the bone bed is located at an elevation of 293 MSL, within fine-grained Pleistocene out-burst flood deposits. Our Mammoth was transported by a flood! It is associated with one of the largest floods forming temporary Lake Lewis.
Continental Glacier
Alpine Glacier
Approximately 15,000 years ago thundering torrents of water,ice and earth suddenly broke through the glacial ice dam at a rate of 10 times the combined flow of all of the rivers in the world, stripping soil, cutting canyons, creating new landforms and destroying all in its path - including the Mammoth. In a few days the waters receded leaving new landforms, the face of the Northwest was forever changed.
The first set of data was collected to determine the relative proportions of various grain size fractions of sediment samples by a combination of the hydrometer and sieve method. This measurement is accomplished by dispersing the soil aggregates into discrete units and separating the particles according to size limits by sedimentation and sieving. A sample is dispersed into a solution by chemical and mechanical means, and the density of the resulting suspension is measured with a hydrometer over a given period of time to determine the silt and clay fractions. The sample is then sieved through a nest of sieves to determine the various sand fractions. The second set of data was gathered using dry sediment and a sample dispersed into a solution through the use of the Partica Laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer.
What did
all that mean???
Laser Results
Hydrometer
&
Sieve Results
Thank you to Mr. George Last and Mr. Ray Clayton and all staff at PNNL and Mc bones Research Center Foundation

And special thanks to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Siemens Foundation,
College Board, ORAU and Discovery Education
for making this opportunity possible!
Full transcript