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Transcript of Underground Railroad
Follow the Drinkin' Gourd
This song was written to provide coded directions to slaves hoping to escape to the north or to "Heaven" (Canada).
Peg Leg Joe
William & Ellen Craft
traveled openly by train and steamboat as a white planter and "his" slave traveling north seeking medical care (1848) to Philadelphia
Odd Escapes (continued)
Henry "Box" Brown
"I had much rather starve in England, a free woman, than be a slave for the best man that ever breathed upon the American continent." — Ellen Craft, December 1852
The Underground Railroad
A network set up to protect runaways from capture.
Used code words such as:
Quakers were the first to shelter runaway slaves
Antislavery societies sent undercover agents into the south to tell slaves about the Underground Railroad
From 1830-60, around 2,500 slaves a year used the U.R.
Levi Coffin was a Quaker and is considered the founder of the U.R.
white abolitionists caught helping runaway slaves faced prison sentences
Calvin Fairbanks-- sentenced to 17 years for delivering runaway slaves to Levi Coffin
African Americans faced harsher penalties
--head of N.Y. Vigilance Committee; regularly changed residence to avoid kidnappers. He was a contributor to Garrison's
--after 14 months jail time awaiting trial, he was sentenced to be sold into slavery where he was "bought" by a white abolitionist
you don't need to write this!
escaped Fayetteville Arkansas with his owner Alfred Wallace's horse, coat, and gold watch
in 6 weeks, made his way to Canada by way of Detroit
was carried to freedom by his mother as a small child
as a "conductor" around 2,000 slaves passed through his "station"
became a leader for the abolitionist movement in Philadelphia
known as the "President" of the U.R.
escaped slavery after learning that she would soon be sold into the deep south
Armed with only a gun and a firm belief in God, she made 19 trips back to Maryland and delivered more than 300 people to freedom.
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 declared all escaped slaves as fugitives who "legally" should be sent back to their owner
Between 1850 and 1860 over
escaped slaves relocated to "Heaven"
Mary Ann Shadd
Born free in Delaware but moved to Canada after Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
was the first black woman publisher in North America and the first woman publisher in Canada when she founded the anti-slavery newspaper
escaped to England without his wife where he married again and became a hypnotist and magician for 25 years
Wallace refused to give up, intent on teaching slaves a lesson even after Canada's government refused to extradite him.
Wallace spent a small fortune on paying lawyers and eventually had Hacket extradited due to his theft of the horse and watch
brought more attention to Canada as a refuge for slaves b/c of the difficulty of extradition
- was a mixed-race person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry
had classification from 7/8th to 1/64th
returned to US after Civil War without his wife and married again before dying old and broke
mailed himself north to Philadelphia, a journey that took 27 hours
Elijah Anderson -
Was arrested in 1850 on an Ohio River steamboat for taking a group of runaway slaves from Indiana to Ohio. He was found guilty of “Enticing Slaves to Run Away,” and sentenced to an eight-year term.
Eleven years later in 1861 (after the Civil War had started) after being forced to pay multiple additional fee's of hundreds of dollars and on his final day in prison, prison guards shot him and crushed his skull
bought as a "Negro Dandy" (30yo in 1841)