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Heredity and Environment (Gen. Psychology) report

all of the info. of our report is based on the book "Psychology-Its Principles&Applications" 6th ed. by T.L. Engle & Louis Snellgrove
by

Abegail Lanzuela

on 18 August 2014

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Transcript of Heredity and Environment (Gen. Psychology) report

Inherited Characteristics
Some Studies of Heredity
Heredity and Maturation
Influences of the environment before birth
Influences of the environment after birth
Interaction of Heredity and Environment
Fin! :)
Isagani Dulfo Jr.
Princess Justine Calingacion
Abegail Lanzuela
Monica Vernadero
Stephanie Jamisola

Heredity and Environment
Genetics
-The study of heredity

Gregor Mendel
-Father of modern genetics
-Pioneered the study how traits were
passed from one generation to the next.


Heredity
Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Traits
The characteristic of an organism.

Genes & Chromosomes
Genes
Term used to describe the unit of heredity
Tiny parts within each chromosomes.

Chromosomes
Rod-shaped “colored bodies”.
Contains the genes that carry hereditary information.
Occur in pairs.
Humans have 46 chromosome.

Genotype vs. Phenotype
Genotype
Individual’s genetic make-up for any characteristic.

Phenotype
Actual, observable characteristic that an individual manifest.
Determined by genotype.

Dominant vs. Recessive
Dominant Characteristics
Trait that covers, or dominate another trait.
Characteristics that appear in all individuals of the first generation of descendants

Recessive Characteristics
Trait that is covered, or hidden by another trait.
Latent and do not appear in the first generation of descendants, although they may appear in subsequent generation.



How do genes determine your biological development?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Composed of two complementary chains of nucleotides in double helix; contains the genetic information of all organism.
Basis for all genetic action.
Gives hereditary instruction for the cellular development of organism.
Responsible for forming another similar chemical known as the RNA.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Reads the instructions for cellular activity and transport them out.
Partially carried out hereditary instructions


Do you inherit characteristics from your parents or from remote ancestors?


Humanitarian reasons disallow to study human heredity.

Result of animal experiment
2 variable: 1. Bright Rat
2. Dull and Mediocre Rat


Studies of Human Families
-Breeding experiment, such as those rats, cannot be carried out with human beings.
But it is possible to learn something about heredity in humans by working backward and studying family trees.

Practical Applications for Controlling Heredity
-situation in province of Northern Italy(1890)

Eugenics
- the science that deals with methods for improving the heridtary qualities of a species, specially of human species

US
- some states have for sterilization of certain defective people to stop reproduction

Heredity
- it involves the transmission of characteristics from biological parents to their offspring via genes at a time of conception.

Maturation
- the process of physical growth and development of an organism over a period of time.

Maturation and Human Learning
Maturation
- is the process of becoming mature.

Learning
- act, process or experience of gaining knowledge or skill.

Can maturation guarantee learning?
- learning is influenced partly by the process of maturation and partly by environmental influences.

Some maternal influences
Disease germs (diphtheria, typhoid, syphilis)
Chemicals formed by emotional shock
In a female mice, experiences of aggression and induced seizures can cause changes in the behavior & physiology of offspring.
The health of the mother affects the health of the developing child.

Influences of prenatal malnutrition
Malnutrition during pregnancy has undesirable influences on the later development of offspring

Effects of malnourishment in young animals
Results in a permanent reduction in brain weight & some degeneration within brain cells.
The earlier the malnutrition occurs, the greater the effect and the less likelihood there is of recovery
Changes in behavior of animals (less intelligent)

Effects of malnourishment in human infants
Lower IQ’s and less healthy bodies
- retarded in language development
- smaller heads , smaller brains
The earlier in life the malnutrition occurs, the greater the retardation

What can be done about the effects of malnutrition on children?
Vitamin supplementation on malnourished pregnant mothers (gives higher IQ on children)
Nutritional therapy

“Prevention is better than cure”
-Decrease the number of malnourished women

Changes in the home environment can result in a change in IQ
Undesirable environment lowers the IQ of children (mental retardation)


A limited environment affects the IQ
Adequate and early sensory stimulation is necessary for adequate intellectual development
The value of providing a more stimulating environment for children with limited cultural experiences

How do race and socioeconomic conditions affect intelligence test scores?
The
Society for the Psychological study of Social issues
, a division of the American Psychological Association:
“We believe that a more accurate understanding of the contribution of heredity to intelligence will be possible only when social conditions for all races are equal.”


All traits depend both on genetic and environmental factors;
environmental factors, broadly defined to
include infectious, chemical, physical, nutritional, and behavioral factors

Heredity and environment interact to produce their effects
means that the way genes act depends on the environment in which they act
In the same way, the effects of environment depend on the genes with which they work

Effects of heredity and environment on development of personality
Hereditary, or the genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring, determines personality to a certain extent

Hereditary characteristics manifest at birth such as hair and eye color, skin color and body type.
Hereditary also includes aptitude or the capacity to learn a skill or inclination for a particular body of knowledge.


It establishes the limits of one's personality traits that can be developed.

This aptitude creates the desire for a person to learn something.


Behavioral geneticists, Dr. David Reiss and colleagues from George Washington University, conducted a thorough and long-term study on the effects of genetics to a person's personality.
The result of their study revealed that it seems that genetic influences are largely responsible for how adjusted kids are: how well they do in school, how they get along with their peers, whether they engage in dangerous or delinquent behavior. 




Behavioral geneticists believe that the genes do not act as the exact blueprints that determine every detail of our personality and behavior;
rather, they think that heredity or these genes reveal through a persons actual interactions with the environment.
The genetic make-up of a person brings out particular reactions to things and people which in turn determine the persons personality

Genetics & Gregor Mendel
Thank You For Listening!~


























































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